The 27 mile long Somerset River Frome rises near Witham Friary, gathers smaller rivers and tributaries along the way before flowing through the town of Frome and on to Freshford where it joins the Bristol Avon. Asked by The Somerset Otter Group to survey a stretch of the River for signs of Otters, we were delighted to join their local team and record the results. Somerset Otter Group
“Record what’s there, not what’s Rare“
A memorable aphorism which Chris du Feu, a naturalist with iRecord, first heard over 45 years ago from his friend and mentor John McMeeking, who was instrumental in forming the Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust.
11th October 2021 / Temp: 14.5 C / Water Level : Low
Another gloriously sunny afternoon and having checked the cattle were at the far end of the field, we began searching the river bank and beaches for Otter spraint. Sad to say we drew another blank, no sign of Otters at any of the three sites, and although we were heartened to see a pair of Grey Wagtail flying up and down above the weir, we felt rather down after inspecting the last beach. However, we decided to sit and enjoy the sunshine – who knows it could be the last gasp before autumn gets really cold.
Almost dozing with the hot sun on our backs, idly watching and listening to the mesmerising sight and sound of the tumble of the river, we almost missed the flash of startlingly blue wings of a Kingfisher flying across the river not more than 18, 20 or so yards away from us! He disappeared into the low branches of a sycamore on the opposite bank and we stared waiting, expecting him to flash upstream from his perch. Imagine our delight and astonishment at the loud splash, almost like a good sized stone dropping into the water, as the Kingfisher dived, reappeared in seconds and again disappeared into the leaves!
Again and again he dived until we lifted our binoculars at just the wrong moment and he was off disappearing downstream, a brilliant flash of blue! Extraordinarily, he was barely lost to view before another Kingfisher shot past, coming downstream and took up position where we saw the first bird fly from! We could hear but couldn’t see him diving for some time before he also sped past, back upstream, his wings glowing, almost sparkling in the sunshine.
We have seen Kingfishers on the nearby lakes perched on a branch and diving into the water, often, but not always, emerging with a small fish in its beak and we have seen Kingfishers innumerable times, up and down the river, but this is the first time we have caught sight of them in the act of fishing the river. A wonderful sight worth waiting for which made us forget all about the lack of Otter signs and which we we always treasure.
We rather reluctantly got up to leave the beach and were disconcerted to see what we hadn’t noticed with our backs to the field – a long line of cattle ambling across the meadow forming a neat barricade between us and the gate out of the field! Rather than race them to the gate we decided to cross the field behind the stragglers and climb the wibbly wobbly leaning gate into the next field.
A good move, just walk slowly and calmly, the bull was in the middle of the herd, heading towards the far field, no problem….. except as we were half way across the field, the cattle turned around and watched us and then began ambling back! By the time we reached the gate the bull, now at the head of the herd, was only 3-4 yards away and our scramble as we wobbled and nearly fell as the gate, lurching first one way and then another, made our precarious climb on the panicky side, but oh the relief – before any of them got to us we were over and safe!! The bull and the rest of the herd gathered around the gate and stood watching us as we called a cheery goodbye and walked away. A farmer in the same position would have slapped the bull on his rump, chatted and turned his back and walked in front of him without a second thought – what a pity we are not farmers.
How calm the fields looked, how beautiful the ash tree bathed in sunshine, how welcome the sight of a clump of field mushrooms, a delightful distraction as we gathered a couple of handfuls for our supper at the end of what had turned out to be a memorable day by the river!
10th October 2021 / Temp: 18 C / Water Level: Low
Beautifully warm, sunny afternoon – astonishingly warm for the second week in October! It was delightful to saunter along the river bank searching for Otter spraint, so quiet, just the cackle of Jackdaws flying over, what a wonderful sound they make, and the mew of a couple of circling Buzzards.
We were pleased to see a Heron, the first for some time along this stretch of the river and then a beautiful Little Egret lifting off but few other birds, just Blackbirds and Robins apart from the usual Pheasants, Crows and Wood Pigeon. We were surprised to see not only a Common Darter but also an Emperor dragonfly patrolling the river as well as a Red-legged Shield Bug clambering around on the grass.
Unfortunately, despite our best efforts, no sign of Otter anywhere, not even old and dry crumblies. We haven’t been able to risk this site for six weeks or so due to the bull being in the field with young heiffers. We are almost sure he is safe but the “almost” which puts us off!
Still a few lingering water forget me not and trifid-bur marigold in flower and as we watched the dragonflies darting by we caught sight of a Kingfisher flashing upstream, his colours vivid and astonishingly bright in the low afternoon sun – magical!
29th September 2021 / Temp: 15 C / Water Level: Med
A brief trip to check the bridge at Oldford to see how Somerset Bridge Department had dealt with the damaged stone pillar and broken rails after the safety barriers erected to offer some protection had been thrown into the river. We were really pleased that the contractors appointed by Somerset County Council had been able to come so quickly after we had reported the damage, although rather disappointed that the railings hadn’t been repaired/replaced. However, replacing the missing safety barriers is a great improvement.
Whilst we were there we checked the riverside for Otter spraint but after so much rain the water had risen considerably since our last visit and covered the stones and bridge pier so no signs of Otter. A great many wasps, bees, hoverflies and noon flies all flocking around the flowering ivy.
The Myathropa florea hoverfly is always rather striking, and is often seen around ivy flowers at the end of summer. Evidently its larvae live in rot holes or cavities of decaying leaves amongst roots at the base of trees of which there are many at the top of the river bank. We are often struck by the varieties of trees in such a small area which include larch, oak, horse chestnut, ash, alder and even a full sized sequoia!
We hadn’t noticed a hazel amongst the trees until we caught sight of the Hawthorn Shieldbug which its distinctive markings, as if someone has left a toffee on its back which has dribbled a mixture of drips and blobs!
The only other creature which caught the eye was this small snail which we hazard Strawberry snail as an identification. We’ve posted it on iRecord and if the id is corrected, we will correct it here.
No sign of any bird life – no water fowl but no other birds either which was surprising as the day was sunny and not cold, but it was extremely windy so perhaps that had deterred them.
A view of the bridge on the undamaged side of the road. The road is very narrow and carries quite a steady stream of cars so it does make walking across the bridge pretty hazardous and we, like most other walkers, step off the road, perch on the raised concrete ledge and lean on the railings to keep clear of the traffic so at least one side of the bridge is safe for pedestrians.
18th Septeber 2021 / Temp: 20 C / Water Level: Low
Messin’ about on the river with our son and grandsons – what could be more fun! They are pretty indifferent to wrigglies so that attempting a kick survey was not on the cards although they were very happy to use the buckets, trays and nets for what they consider the business of the day – a’ hunting of the crayfish!
Who says that children have a short concentration span? They were relentless as they stumbled on the hidden stones and boulders, up and down the river, wellington boots full of water, soaking wet shorts shrieking with glee, shouting with triumph, standing in the middle of the river with the fast current swirling around them gazing awestruck as they excitedly demanded we look at the size of this huge and scary whopper! The crayfish looked less than amused and even possibly rather cross (see above).
Two Kingfishers flashed past which earned barely a glance, a Grey Wagtail flew up to what is a favourite perch on the river and executed an impressive handbrake turn when he saw the crowd. We saw Small White and Small Tortoiseshell butterflies, a string of ponies crossing the bridge being led by a rider, we found Bullheads and small fry none of which could be allowed to interfere with the serious business of the day – catching the dratted crayfish. They are the bane of our lives, undermining river banks with their tunnels and contributing to the sedimentation of the river, killing native White Clawed crayfish either with the plague they carry or by dominating the habitat. Our eagle-eyed grandson who misses very little, noticed that one of the crayfish had white eyes. Searching the internet on returning home we discovered that this could have been a mutation or, perhaps more plausibly, a sign of the highly infectious species of fungus Aphanomyces astaci, the plague referred to which attacks the soft tissue, including the eyes.
But all of this is nothing to our intrepid hunters out on a mission and finding creatures which are extremely plentiful, look strikingly ferocious and are very easy to catch!
But then…. how can anyone not be impressed when one rampaging hunter bends down and picks up a pale yellow shell, not more than 4mm in size and holds it out in the palm of his hand. We find lots of these shells on the water line of beaches but we noticed that this one was a complete closed bivalve so we put in the tray. When we came to examine our catch later, the shell had opened and a single foot had stretched out and was clinging to the side of the tray. A live Horny Orb Mussel – a bioindicator of not too polluted water – the first we had ever seen!! What a brilliant find – what a wonderful grandson – what a marvellous day!!
7th September 2021 / Temp: 29 C / Water Level: Low
Forgive the appalling photograph but the best my little snap camera could manage in capturing a beautiful Dipper fishing downriver from us. We were perched on our stools, peering into our tray of treasures from a half-hearted attempt at a kick survey, when what looked like a male Dipper flew upstream, perched one legged on a convenient stone, and began to examine the water.
He seemed totally unaware of us, remained stock still for quite some time, possibly resting but eventually he flew across the river found another suitable stone and began his usual Steve Smith at the crease impersonation, bobbing, and bobbing and bobbing! It must be the answer because he soon stuck his head under the water and began feeding in earnest. So intent was he that he ignored our raised binoculars, camera and murmurs of delight and continued contentedly picking away at whatever he was finding under and around the stones.
Judging by the number of mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae we had been finding he wouldn’t be short of food. The mayfly nymphs looked rather small and thin but the fat net-spinning Caddis larvae (Hydropsche pellucidula) must surely make a tasty morsel for any discerning Dipper!
We found Flat-bodied Heptageniidae (stone clingers – possibly Yellow May), Olives Baetidae as well as the mayfly larvae, lots of Gammarus (freshwater shrimps) and a couple of leeches although as far as we know Dippers don’t feed on the latter two species, possibly shrimps at least swim far too fast.
What a difference a week makes – the temperature a mere seven days ago a chilly 15 C with a blustery north-easterly win and today a balmy 29 C with a soft south westerly breeze! A beautiful afternoon, hot sun burning the field but wonderfully cool under the trees, listening to the gurgle and chattering river rushing past tumbling over the stones of the ancient ford and watching the wind play with the leaves of the willow and alders on both banks. Good to be peering into trays of wrigglies, glancing up in time to see a Kingfisher flash past low over the water and watch the small white butterflies fluttering over the water and up into the trees.
7th September 2021 / Temp : 20 C / Water Level: Low
Gum boots and buckets, trays and dipping nets, sieves and spoons, cameras and anti-bacterials, stout sticks and notebooks, all essential items for a mooch by the river and a scooping up of wrigglies, and, if you are very, very fortunate, a beloved daughter willing to give up a day to help. Oh the relief – younger, fitter, sharper eyed, who can scramble up and down river banks with ease and spot what we have missed and tireless in sweeping vegetation, river weed, kicking gravel and stones from the river bed – marvellous!
Lots and lots of the usual mayfly and net-spinning caddis larvae in every net, counted and logged, even more tiny fishes, too small to be sure of identification but counted anyway, minute worms, but then we found a prize!
A diving beetle not previously found, a Platambus maculatus, with its subtle colours and beautiful markings which we eventually managed to corner long enough to photograph (it took two of us – we can confirm it swims fast, very, very fast!!). It is common and widespread throughout the country where it lives on vegetated margins of rivers and eaten by trout. Not a rarity but a great find. Note: iRecord hasn’t checked it but iNaturalist has accepted the species identification and given it Research grade status.
More little fishes but surprisingly we didn’t catch one freshwater shrimp when upriver we catch so many they become a bother separating them from more interesting finds. The margins turned out to be a good source of new species – including a water measurer (Hydrometra stagnorum) what looked like orange millipedes (3 but unidentified), a faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) .
We were all fascinated when my daughter spotted a tiny caddis larva, possibly left too long in the tray, begin to forage for plant debris and other detritus which it then assembled around itself, a small fragment at a time. Caddis larvae live underwater for most of their lives, where they make cases by spinning together stones, sand, leaves and twigs with a silk they secrete from glands around the mouth. Some live in them, discarding and constructing ever larger ones as they grow, some are free swimming and only build a case to shelter in whilst they pupate. This one was so small, it might have been building its first shelter; it seems quite extraordinary the lengths such tiny creatures go to to survive and mesmerising to watch.
We did take breaks from peering to wander around the beach, checking on large stones and grass tussucks for Otter spraint without success, but my daughter spotted a tiny brown frog, a single Beautiful Demoiselle female damselfy and a dragonfly, there were lots of bees, hoverflies and, as always very noticeably at this time of the year, craneflies.
We also checked on the number of birds – very few – we were rather relieved to see a Cormorant perched in their favourite tree at the far end of the field because we didn’t see any other water birds. Blackbirds, Crows, Wood Pigeons and a Magpie seemed the only birds around until my daughter spotted the Buzzards flying overhead – it looked like a family party of five and, happily, walking back beside the river we spotted a pair of Grey Wagtails below the weir. Impossible to know if this is the same pair which we have seen on occasion since spring but if so we have yet to see signs of successful breeding. Whilst we were watching the birds, my daughter scrambled down the track made by the Otters climbing up the steep bank and found clear signs of fresh anal jelly.
Further on the Otter spotting front, rather shameful to report that although both my husband and I had checked the shallow beach for Otter spraint before we began the kick-survey and found nothing, just before we were leaving and my daughter was emptying the species tray she spotted, yes you guessed it, a clear red fresh spraint! Oh dear…. However, we were at least able to spot 2 seperate deposits of fresh Otter spraint on either side of the bridge piers, one with 2 crayfish pearls – so good to see so many signs that the Otters are still here and seemingly thriving!
1st September 2021 / Temp: 15.5 C / Water Level: Low
The north-easterly wind not quite so strong but still hanging around and pulling the temperature down over the last week but the sun shone, if intermittently, and we were beguiled at the beginning of the Otter survey by Swallows still swooping around the buildings and the narrow carrier stream from the old flood workings a mass of flowering plants in a line across the water meadow.
The stream is barely visible beneath the tangle of which we managed to identify nearly twenty plants in flower: purple loostrife, woody nightshade, bindweed, water mint, angelica, leafy hawkweed, yarrow, stitchwort, valerian, teasel, white dead nettle, stinging nettle, creeping thistle, great willowherb, gypsywort, redlegs, comfrey, great willowherb and water forget-me-knot and water-cress!
Our spirits were further raised by spotting fourteen fresh Otter pad marks in the soft mud of the first beach, disturbing 10 Mallard who, as usual, complained in the most unreasonable fashion at our intrusion as they flew off.
At the next site even better, more pad marks as well as 4 fresh and 5 recent sets of Otter spraint and the 5 Mandarin who flew up at our approach did so silently – almost inscrutably one might even say! As we walked along the edge of the river, although screened by trees and shrubs in full leaf, we still disturbed the main flock of Mandarin – we counted at least 50 as they rose and flew across the fields to find a more secluded spot. Quiet they might be but the sound of such a sheer number of wings meant they were unable to make a silent escape! Was it the Mandarin which alerted a small flock of Ravens to take to the sky? Five in all – adults and juveniles? Difficult to be sure but so lovely to hear their friendly chattering to each other as they flew overhead.
Another trek, another beach – and what a beach! At the far end of our Otter survey sites, the longest walk, the most difficult barbed wire fences to negotiate, the most uneven, tussocky long grass where we usually arrive battered by low hanging branches, stung by nettles, scratched by a combination of barbed wire, rose briars and strands of bramble trailing under-foot across the path to trip the unwary or caught in our hair when we are studying the ground! But oh the reward – Otters just love this hidden beach and we usually find the most spraint there. Today was no exception – Eight fresh spraint (which often means more than one Otter) six recent and two old – crayfish claws, crayfish pearls and all the usual detritus of their latest meals scattered across the stones and pebbles, some easily spotted a strong orange red-rust from the crayfish but some black, glistening or dull and more difficult to see. It’s lovely scrambling around, eyes darting everywhere, listening to the river riffling and tumbling at this point, sun on our backs and all thought of tiredness completely forgotten!
A pair of beautifully marked Tipula lateralis Crane flies (mating so still enough for a change to get a good shot) who had found a perfect spot dangling down from the river bank. In a small cave at the foot of the bank, half hidden, were two Large Red slugs Arion rufus, only one of which was red! A long walk back being necessary we were forced to shift our stumps and very reluctantly leave the beach and head home. But the scramble up the bank did bring a rather surprising reward in the shape of a Glandular Globe thistle – a plant previously unknown to us.
Unfortunately the photograph simply doesn’t convey quite how spectacular the flowerhead is (or the height of the plant and size of the prickly leaves for that matter) but as it is an unusual find in such an unlikely place we thought it worth recording. They can live for 30 years so this may be an old plant which would account for its size – the fact that it usually flowers July-August, a period we often miss on our monthly survey, maybe why we have never noticed it before.
A Small Tortoiseshell, three Speckled Wood, a Meadow Brown and six Small White butterflies accompanied us across the sunny fields towards home – weary but oh so happy to be alive on such a day in such a place!!
31st August 2021 / Temp: 14.5 C / Water Level: Low
How often we have complained about the cattle trampling down the plants on our favourite beach with its full-grown ancient willow trees and massed flowers in summer. Well, this is what it looks like when the cattle haven’t been in the field for some time! Looking down to the river and, once we had scrambled down and edged our way through the less dense areas of undergrowth, looking up to the river bank!
It’s the yellow season! Swathes of saracens woundwort and tansy fill the beach, almost swamping the reeds, water mint, purple loosestrife and water forget-me-not. Wonderful for the bees and hoverflies (of which there were countless numbers) not so good for the drangonflies and damselflies, only two seen – a single lonely male Banded Demoiselle and a Migrant Dragonfly. No other insects either, which given the amount of flowers was unexpected.
No water birds (in fact apart from a pair of Grey Wagtails and a Buzzard we saw no other birds at all). A few grasshoppers leaping about and we spotted a green shieldbug in its summer colours but very little life – maybe they were put off by the unseasonably chilly and pretty lively north-easterly wind!
What did catch the eye were the Euura proxima larvae which were feeding on the narrow-leaved willows causing these knobbly coffee bean shaped galls. Evidently they transect the leaf blade but grow more on the upper surface according to what we have read. We often see them but not usually quite so red.
Heading for home we eventually managed to spot some Otter spraint on some stones near the river edge which wasn’t swamped by plants and more near the weir and 4 fresh spraint under the bridge together with crayfish remains so all is not lost – at least there are Otters about.
4th August 2021 – Sad to report a dead Otter was found last evening lying by the side of the road close to the river. Arrangements were made to bag and convey it to Jo Pearse of the Somerset Otter Group in Glastonbury where she will ensure it is delivered to the Cardiff University Otter project people who will carry out a post mortem.
3rd August 2021 / Temp: 20 C / Water Level: Med
Full sun and a beautiful afternoon to explore our last Otter survey sites of the month along a quiet stretch of the river. Hazel nuts are already dropping and the meadows have an end of summer air, straw coloured grasses heavy with seed, hugely tall mulleins with most of the blossoms dropping, but enough flowers in bloom to interest the hoverflies and bees on the bramble (10+), Himalyan Balsam (10+) and Comfrey (10+) a few on the welted thistle but none at all on the spear thistle, rather surprisingly. A few butterflies about – Meadow Browns, Small Whites, Speckled Woods, Commas and Red Admirals. 2 Brown Hawkers were the only dragonflies and there were only a few Banded Demoiselles as far as we could see which was surprising on such a sunny day.
Very little activity on the water – they must have stopped working from home! We disturbed a group of four Mandarin but the two Heron we spotted were in the middle of the water meadow on the opposite bank and there was only a single juvenile Cormorant on sentry duty on the top of a dead Alder tree. There are a number of trees along the bank similarly afflicted by a type of fungus, Phytophthora. Sometimes known as alder dieback, the disease is more noticeable in summer as the leaves of affected alders are abnormally small and yellow and often fall early. Alders perform such a crucial job in flood mitigation along river banks where its roots help to prevent soil erosion so the spread of the fungus is a cause of growing concern.
When we arrived at the final site without finding any signs of Otter we were glad to perch on our folding stools and have a restful few minutes. Surprising what you see when jus’ sittin’! We idly watched the flies around the stones on the beach, continuously flying in, settling momentarily then flying off again in an ever moving swarm. We had time to examine them through our butterfly binoculars and noticed that the sawn off appearance of the wing tips on some of the flies also sported a white splodge (a technical term!).
These were semaphore flies (Poecilobothrus nobilatus) we discovered when we reached home. Evidently one of the most researched insects because they are easy to identify and there are a lot of them! It’s a pity the photograph doesn’t show their beautiful colouring, lime green eyes and thorax looking burnished in the full sun.
We learned that they are called semaphore flies because the males fly down and stand opposite the female, fluttering and signalling with their white tipped wings. If the female is interested they will mate but if she is not she will simply fly away. It appears that with female flies size is everything as they always chose the largest males with whom to mate!
Well rested we move off the beach, looking carefully where we put our feet, when to our surprise we spotted what we had missed earlier – fresh Otter spraint! It was small, possibly a cub or female Otter, red and chock full of crayfish shell – the change from winter black to summer red does seem to follow the abundence of crayfish. As mentioned, it’s interesting to notice what there is to see if we sometimes stop and stare!
22nd July 2021 / Temp: 23 C / Water Level: Low
9.55am Another beautiful heat-wave morning and we ran a bit late as we hoped to get our Otter survey done before the sun became too hot for us to bear but by the time we reached the river it was already very hot and along this stretch of the river there was not much shade but the Chub, growing bigger by the week, and leisurely swimming slowly up and down, for all the world like a fishy passeggiata, seem to be unbothered by the heat.
Brown Hawker copyright Tony Hisgett
The Brown Hawkers seemed equally oblivious – skimming up and down the riverside plants, in their everlasting hunt for food, we watched first one and then the two more who joined in. They are so large we were constantly catching sight of them and expecting to see a small bird, a wren maybe or evena kingfisher dashing by. The dainty, delicate Banded Demoiselles, Blue-tipped and Common Blue Damselflies went about their business totally oblivious to the bully boys amongst them.
As we checked for Otters (no signs) and collected our water samples, we listened to the Green Woodpecker echoing across the meadows and a Raven calling his distinctive greeting as he flew overhead. We admired the clumps of water forget-me-not almost hidden in the thick border of reeds, the beautiful purple loosestrife A steady stream of leaves fell from the riverside trees into the river almost entirely alder and willow although there were hawthorn and blackthorn. No doubt the very early leaf fall was due to the nearly week-long heat wave where the heat of the sun was so intense.
However, the predominant sight which met us when we arrived and before we could carry out our survey was upsetting in the extreme. Reluctant as we are to bring news of such devastation to our celebration of our beautiful local river, we cannot just let it pass by without comment. Cartons, food packaging, drink cans, plastic bottles, socks, plastic bags, towels, plastic wrappers, tin foil barbecue containers, beer cans and bottles strewn over a large area all along the river bank. In the centre of the field were three large dustbins bags full to the brim and spilling their contents of yet more picnic detritus onto the meadow.
Seeing the cows and bull at the far end of the field we had no choice but to collect all the rubbish, making sure we collected every plastic bottle top, medicine package, crisp packet or anything else which might be harmful to the domestic or wild animals which frequent the field (although we did draw the line at picking up discarded plasters and we were unable to remive the plastic bottles thrown into the river as they were too far out for us to reach.
Given that this is private farmland regularly used for grazing cattle and the bank and river are owned by the local Frome & District Angling Association one would have imagined that tresspassers who swim and picnic would at least leave the river, bank and field as they found it but it appears that is not the case.
As for the water samples, the readings were much as expected, the Nitrates were above the safety level and Phosphates considerably higher than that and of course both much higher than that recommended by the Water Framework Directive.
21st July 2021 / Temp: 22.5 C / Water Level : Low
9.05 am – Clear sunny morning after a hot muggy night and we’re off on an Otter hunt! Not expecting to see the animal, we are never that lucky, but hoping to see spraint or pad marks or signs of them passing by. Sadly just one sighting under the bridge, all other sites were Otter free.
The river looked beautiful, sparkling in the sunshine, the damselflies fluttering over the water, all through the riverside reeds and purple loosestrife – 2 or 3 White-legged, 13 Banded Demoiselles, a handful of Beautiful Demoiselles and a large, very important looking Brown Hawker patrolling his patch, looking very masterful!
There were also 9 Small White and 4 Small Tortoiseshell butterflies, 8 ladybirds (almost entirely Harlequins), loads of grasshoppers and we counted 10 soldier beetles before we gave up as they seemed to be on every plant!
Not many birds – a Buzzard circling, a busy Wren close to the river, a couple of Mallard scooting off at our approach with lots of noisy complaints, a lovely Goldfinch and at last the reward – a Kingfisher flashed past!!
17th July 2021 / Temp : 29 C / Water Level : Low
It was extremely hot and almost tropical in the house and the clear skies made for burning sun and a longing for the cool shade of the tree lined river. We headed to the water to check along the beaches and banks for signs of Otter but despite our best efforts, we didn’t spot a single pad mark or spraint or even the tell-tale crayfish remains.
However, what we did see was a joy – we discovered river limpets for the first time! We found loads of shells on the beach river line further upstream but we have never before found any actually living in the river, attached to stones, so we reconciled ourselves to the belief that the shells had been washed downriver from one of the tributaries. But here they were – so incredibly small and so difficult to spot but once we found one we found many others, although disappointingly they also proved too difficult for my little camera to capture a clear image – hence the unfocused photo here!
Naturespot writes: A bottom living species found in unpolluted running water where it adheres to the sides of stones in moderate flows. Sensitive to pollution but is usually excluded from suitable habitat only by chronic pollution as it will normally recolonize lost territory after incidents. This was extremely interesting to us as the water test showed a sharp increase or spike in phosphate pollution since our last test a mere 8 days ago so we were concerned that these limpets and the caddis fly larvae might be harmed.
We were surprised to see so few butterflies or in fact insects of any description – a couple of banded demoiselles, 5 small white and 1 meadow brown butterfly being the sum total of the afternoon. Similarly apart from a family of Crows attacking a Buzzard, a few Wood Pigeons and Gulls and one Wren it looked as if that would be the lot, but when we were working the river close to the bank a Kingfisher shot past downriver, missing one of us by centimetres, and minutes later he shot back upriver again giving us a full view of his beatiful feathers, who could ask for more – river limpets and Kingfishers!
9th July 2020 / Temp: 19 C / Water Level: Low
Fortunately the rain held off and we were able to spend part of the morning testing the water for phosphorus and nitrates as part of the BART Waterblitz project. It was disturbing to note the high levels of both (2.00 ppm and 40 ppm respectively) which must effect the health of the river. Some creatures are able to tolerate that level of pollution, for example some of the Mayflies, Caddisflies, Dragonflies, fish and crayfish etc but some cannot. So that while we see a great number of Ephemera danica, both as larvae and as mayflies plus Yellow May larvae, we never see Yellow Sally Mayflies which are believed to be very susceptible to organic pollution. On the other hand, species like the Blue Winged Olive, which are very susceptible to phosphorus so we wouldn’t expect to see any but we have recorded both larvae and mayflies in the river.
What was also very noticeable was that the water was colourless but, predominantly on the edge of the river, the moss and stones were covered with a substantial layer of sediment which turned the fresh green moss-covered stones mid-stream into brown, sludgy unsightly brown on the slower bankside water. This is borne out by never seeing the Southern Iron Blue Mayfly which are susceptible to sediment.
Standing calf-deep midstream watching the water rushing past one is reminded yet again that this isn’t a majestic river like the Danube with it’s huge commercial vessels ploughing all before, pushing steadily downstream, or commanding awe like the Sava, creating giant jagged slabs of snow covered ice along its banks in winter, full of pleasure boats and water skiers in summer, it’s not even deep and wide and serene like the Thames, carrying rowing eights with their beefy oarsmen and diminutive cox with a loud hailer almost larger than their heads – this is an intimate river, which, like an over-excited child, is always full of chatter. It never stops telling anyone who will listen the tales it has to tell, of the amazing things it has seen on its dash across country through villages and town, through farms and nature reserves and all the magical creatures it nurtures. As it tumbles over stones, like stumbling over words, runs deep and black and mysterious before weirs and shouts loudly over the rush and splash and thunder, that if you stop and look, really look, you will discover that here “there are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.”
Wading back to the bank we walk along the edge of the luxuriant high summer growth of the feathery seed heavy reeds bending low beneath the weight, the opening common valerian, stately hogweed through which the damselflies which flash irridescent blue and emerald bodies with transparent or copper wings fluttering up and down, a small tortoiseshell butterfly, bees, hoverflies and swollen thighed flower beetle examining every bramble or ragwort flower, or craneflies hunting a convenient blade of leaf on which to rest, difficult when there are so many common wetland Amber snails clinging to reed stems displaying their spires with aplomb!
Our test completed, our wading done, we gathered sticks and binoculars, test kits and bottles and climbed the steep bank to the top. Standing on the bank taking a last glimpse of the river sparkling in the sunshine, we were just in time to spot a kingfisher flashing downstream. A perfect end to a perfect morning on the river!
1st July 2021
We are most grateful to receive a reply from the notable paleontologist Simon Carpenter who has kindly identified the fossil which our 9 year old grandson found in the river while we were doing our kick survey.
Simon Carpenter writes:
26th June 2021 / Water Level: Low
The idyllic calm of a fine summer afternoon looking upstream where the river is clear and full of fish and even fuller of empty ripped pupa cocoons and tumbled tiny stones of the free swimming caddis larvae Rhyacophila dorsalis escaping their bondage and now flying free!
Downstream are two young boys their father and grandfather a’hunting the crayfish, each catch larger than the one before, catching Bullhead from a tiny fry, looking for all the world like a flying insect, to good sized (for Bullhead!) fish,
and watching a single Cormorant diving and fishing totally oblivious of his audience of children and parents alike standing stock still, knee deep in the tumbling current until the bird, presumably well-fed eventually swam off downstream and soon lost to sight in the bend of the river.
Above the water meadow a pair of Kestrels were mobbing a Buzzard whilst two more Buzzards circled higher up in the sky keeping out of trouble! We heard a Wren close by the bank complaining nosily at our intrusion and a Jay rattling from a tree near the carrier stream which may have alerted the Brown Hare to our presence because we caught sight of him racing down the line the stream to disappear towards the farm. Very few butterflies, a large white and a small tortoiseshell looking rather lonely as they fluttered around.
A marvellous, memorable day, full of excitement and action, the boys stopping only to pour out their almost full wellington boots before thrusting soggy socked feet back into soaking wet boots and returning to the hunt. And to crown what had been for a very happy but tired couple of boys a brilliant time messin’ about on the river was the younger one finding first a ramshorn snail and then this exquisite bivalve fossil.
We have found similar fossils but broken and incomplete but this one was a peach! Fortunately the organiser of our Somerset Otter Group has a friend who is a notable paleontologist and suggests that we contact him for his thoughts on the find. We can’t wait to hear what he has to say!
As the afternoon was drawing to an end, we oldies could think of nothing but a longed for cup of tea while the boys dragged their father off to the skate park – where do they get their energy from?!
2nd June 2021 / Temp: 20 C / Water Level: Med, falling
Mayflies! It’s the season! Everywhere we look, clinging to flower stems, stinging nettles, leaves of every description or caught in spiders’ webs, there is a mayfly clinging, hanging motionless. Sitting on the river bank and watching the mayfly hatch on a warm early summer afternoon, what could be more mesmerising. The duns lifting and drifting to the reeds, those falling back into the river to flutter and fail, the leaping fish early in the season, or the lazy fish later just opening their mouths or completely ignoring them. The non-stop yo-yo mating dance of the spinners sometimes over the water or over the river bank, so thick it’s amost impossible to walk through – summer has arrived at last!
We were particularly thrilled to spot a Blue Winged Olive dun, rather sadly caught in a web, a tragic end to a joyful rise into the sunshine from the water after two years as a larva confined to the river, but exciting for us to see this species for the first time – one of the species indicative of unpolluted water.
Lots of damselflies joining in the flight, male and female banded demoiselles, beautiful demoiselles, blue-tailed, and common blues but still no signs of dragonflies – maybe too early. No butterflies either, just one orange-tip and a solitary holly blue examining a large Otter spraint on the beach, but we did spot a nomad bee among the buff-tails and honey bees, what might have been a dagger fly and even a click beetle clinging to a blade of grass!
Little Egrets, a Heron, 29(!) Mandarin, 10 Mallard, a flock of Rooks and Jackdaws around the heiffers; a particularly loud Song Thrush singing from the tree, challenged by Whitethroat, Chaffinch, Chiff Chaff, Blackbird all giving full throat – a wonderful sound.
We were so pleased to see a good number of Otter spraint at the first site, 5 fresh and 3 recent, more than we have ever seen which raised our spirits, lifted further by spotting two brown hares, running away from us and then squatting down, low on their haunches, even though they were not hidden as the meadow has been recently cut and hay gathered, but this year’s crop of maize should give good cover pretty soon.
Our next Otter site was even better – 7 fresh spraint, toffee-red and chock full of crayfish shell and pearls and 2 recent which raises the possibility of more than one Otter. There were lots of fingernail clams and spiral water snail shells among the coarse sand on the waterline, a pond skater, male and female damselflies along the edge plants while in the water mayfly and damselfly nymphs, lots of freshwater shrimps of course, but also some intriguing small beetles, at least 25, which unfortunately were just too minute for us to identify.
As we walked back across the stubbled water meadow we found what looked like a nest of pheasant eggs which had been run over by the farm vehicles – a common sight now that most farmers mow their hay fields twice a year, the first when the ground birds are still nesting. As we neared the farm we watched with delight the rather more fortunate handful of Swallows streaming high and weaving low across the sky before disappearing into the barn, their beaks full of flies to feed their early brood. Summer has arrived!!
31st May 2021 / Temp : 20 C / Water Level : Med. falling
A beautiful afternoon, sunshine and drifting fair weather fluffy clouds, the air full of blue tailed, banded and beautiful demoiselle damselflies, including several dark ink blue immature male demoiselles with caramel coloured wings, orange tip and red admiral butterflies and even a pair of Great Spotted Woodpeckers nesting in a tree close to the river.
It was a good time to get the second kick survey done and be out of the way before the coarse fishing season starts in a couple of days. The water level in the river was also falling which makes it a good deal easier to negotiate, given that the current is fast and furious, tumbling over the stones of the remains of the old Roman ford at that point. It usually has rich pickings and we were not disappointed but extremely pleased with our haul! A caseless caddis, which Ian Wallace from iRecord kindly identified as Rhyacophilladae dorsalis, and what we think may well be its pupal skin abandoned on a stone when it left the river.
copyright Rebecca Muirhead
A good showing of Dragonfly and Mayfly larvae both Ephemera danica and Serratella ignita (both of which were rising from the river around us) several freshwater leeches, cranefly larvae, alderfly larvae (possibly the mud alderfly Sialis lutaria), uncountable numbers of freshwater shrimps, midge larvae, worms and river weed, the latter a thorough nuisance as everything hid under it.
copyright: Rebecca Muirhead
Lots of small humped Agapes cases secured to stones, they are extremely abundent here. We are extremely ignorant and amateurish in our identification of these water creatures and what little we know has been garnered by hours spent pouring over the diagrams and re-reading the explanations in Ian Wallace’s excellent “Simple Key to Caddis Larvae” and the FSC Freshwater name trail but learning from books is very much second best to learning from experts in the field. This is to excuse our lack of naming the Agapes species – as far as we know, unlike the caseless caddis, we haven’t been able to see one let alone photograph one! The same applies to this little black creature, we have a photograph but it remains able to travel totally incognito as we have not the slightest idea what it is!
When we began to tire, we packed up all our paraphernalia, and made our way slowly back along the river bank and across the water meadow disturbing two pairs of Mandarin and one duckling, a Grey Wagtail, a Heron lifting laconically from the bank, a small flock of Herring Gulls with a Lesser Black-Backed gull amongst them passing overhead and a Red Kite, hanging around above the grass cutting machinery in the next field, hoping for a supper of small fat mammals fleeing the machines.
30th May 2021 / Temp: 20.5 C / Water Level : Med
On what promises to be a gloriously sunny Whitsun day we head to the river over burdened with rucksacks, kick nets, buckets, trays, cameras, binoculars and, most importantly of all, the picnic! Our dear daughte,r having offered to give up a couple of days of her holiday weekend to help with our kick sample which is becoming really too difficult for us to manage on our own, deserved a reward which I offered as soon as we arrived at the river – gin and tonic iced lollies! They were absolutely delicious, even though, melting fast, they dissolved into iced crush. We toasted Beltane with many cries of “Happy Belters!” which set the mood for the afternoon.
Beautiful Demoiselle (f) – copyright Rebecca Muirhead
We had found fresh Otter spraint (with crayfish pearls) at our first site on the way to the beach, scatterings of crayfish remains every 2 yards stretching for 30 yards and more fresh spraint on the beach. The beach was alive with damselflies, beautiful demoiselle, banded demoiselle and common blue, thick with flowers, red campion, cow parsley, buttercups, stitchwort, vetch all growing tall and so thick we had to edge through to make a narrow path through the undergrowth, and the mayflies were rising with a good number one after another and then another and yet more in a steady flight all afternoon – wonderful to see the river so alive and delightful to watch as we tucked into Mowbray pork pies, baguettes thickly spread with homemade pates, black olives and watermelon & feta salad.
Common Blue Damselfly (m) – copyright Rebecca Muirhead
We resisted the temptation to fall asleep in the sunshine with the only noise the soft soporific sound of the river tumbling and splashing over the stones, and set to, dragging the net through the long, green hair-like tendrils of the water weed and kept to the edge of the river, the main channel being too deep and fast to wade out to.
We struck gold! Almost immediately we captured this small creature in our net and watched it careering around the shallow bucket at top speed. A completely new species for us which we hope won’t be too difficult to identify – always a forlorn hope – a faint possibility it might be a net-spinning caddisfly larva but all these grub-like larva look so similar we may never find out!
Note: This larva (above) has been identified by Ian Wallace of iRecord as Rhyacophila dorsalis, a free swimming caseless caddis larvae, now been confirmed as present in both kick survey sites.
However a goodish haul – dragonfly, damselfly and mayfly larvae (many flattened mayfly nymphs including 2 Yellow May) as well as the caddis larvae, the usual huge number of freshwater shrimps, plus water fleas, fish eggs, both biting and non-biting midge larvae. We weren’t able to carry out a full survey but working with what we had, it confirms that the water here meets the “moderately impacted” category, disappointing given the number of species indicating clean water, but not unexpected.
Breeding season for nettle weevils seems to be in full swing, three Pied Wagtails flying ackwards and forwards across the river, and up into a tall tree, bringing food for their nestlings, three Mallard, one male and two females, 3 Wrens, a Great Tit and as the afternoon wore on 4 or 5 Swallows suddenly appeared, weaving around the trees, feeding, before flying off. Short by incredibly sweet to see Swallows, harbingers of summer. Checking the last site, we disturbed a Heron but there were few other birds and no butterflies and by now it was time to pack up.
All afternoon the farm machinery had been working the water meadow, cutting the hay, and as we walked back along the river bank we startled a Buzzard threatening a Crows’ nest, it immediately flew up and away, being chased by both parent birds squawking loudly and shouting abuse. Three other Buzzards circled above the lines of drying new mown hay, all on the lookout for prey, two Red Kites were also on the look-out, one quite low over the grass, another higher up and also circling and finally we spotted a Kestrel joining in the small mammal hunt. None appeared to be successful whilst we were walking through.
A good crop of dandelions by the five-barred gate, each one filled with lots of fruitworm beetles crawling between the petals feeding on the pollen. What a wonderful day to spend in the brilliant sunshine of early summer, away from all the cares and burdens of this long, seemingly endless plague, where our only concerns are river creatures and nestlings.
28th May 2021 / Temp: 18.5 C / Water Level: Med
Such a relief to get out along the river and check what’s new, what’s happening with the Otters. After an unseasonably cold and dry April, it has been an unseasonably cold and wet May – horrible weather, almost autumnal but definitely October, grey and dreary so although the sky was overcast, at least it wasn’t raining!
After the bumper sightings of so much Otter spraint on last month’s survey along this stretch of the river, we had high hopes of finding lots. Sadly, not the case. When naturalists refer to Otters as wanderers, we can certainly second that, as despite almost crawling along with a large magnifying glass so carefully did we check every inch of the banks and beaches, we saw nothing but two dollops of recent spraint on the corner of the beach at the far reaches of our stretch of river. This exceedingly frustrating sighting fills us with deep gloom – as the river beyond that point is not accessible to us an we have visions of an adult female Otter and her cubs cavorting about just out of sight around the bend in the river, chortling happily!
However, searching for spraint meant we were looking everywhere and spotted this beautiful longhorn beetle going by the magnificent name of Anaglyptus mysticus which sounds very much like mysterious wallpaper! Whatever, he’s a handsome beast, whose larvae feed for two years in the dead wood of broad-leaved trees (we spotted him on nettles close by a wood pile) and after overwintering under the tree bark, emerge in April.
Very heartening to see both Swans with cygnets and Mandarin with at least four ducklings, Mandarin do very well here and their numbers are ever increasing, but whether that is because a householder farther upstream feeds them regularly or not is impossible to tell, but is extremely likely. We saw several pairs of Mallard but strangely no sign of young but they could of course have been hiding under tree roots in the river when they heard us approach. Little Egret, Pheasant, Chaffinch, Wren, Robin, a pair of nesting Crows in their nest high up in a tree and even a cockerel making his presence known.
There seem to be a fair number of alderflies (left) this spring, which is always a good sign of a healthy river where their larvae can thrive.
Another sign of reasonably clean water is the number of mayflies (we only saw the most common, Green Drake) clinging to grass stems and tall plants and low hanging leaves of the trees along the river bank.
We also spotted this half-drowned insect caught in the cleft of a teasel stem; we eventually identified it as a Dock Shieldbug, bamboozled by its amber body, almost glowing reflecting the golden buttercup, when we are so familiar with its more usual dull brown colouring and striking shape, although evidently its body does show red when in flight but we have never recognised it when flying.
We had a friendly and informative chat with the owner of the property who allows us access to his stretch of the river to carry out our monthly Otter survey. He was telling us that he had received a letter from a women who had been an evacuee at the farm when she was a child and was hoping to visit later in the summer with her family. It was still a working dairy farm when she had stayed there and she was longing to revisit and see if she could find reminders of her old haunts. We hope to hear or read in the local newspaper an account of her visit which should be fascinating.
9th May 2021 / Temp: 15.5 C / Water Level: Low
Dark and gloomy afternoon – difficult to believe it is the second week in May, usually the most beautiful month of the year but not this year. Easy to look around at the lifeless fields and grey sky and think this is what a plague inflicted country looks like, the temperature in the brief periods of sunshine warm but the wind cutting and more like March than May. The contrast from last year couldn’t be more marked – then we were basking in day after day of brilliant sunshine and balmy temperatures, this year it is so cold we see few insects and again no damselfies.
No sign of Otter spraint either, although there were signs of recent spraint at the second site on a favourite stone underneath the bridge, so they are still roaming around. Signs of what may be field voles in the field, piles of short nibbled grass stems scattered around one area close to the river bank, well away from the mole hills which line parts of the field. Lots of birds, a Green Woodpecker yaffling from the nearby wood, longtailed tits, robins, blackbirds, great tits, and the usual flocks of gulls and two pairs of mallard.
Just as we were leaving, walkng across the water meadow, there suddenly appeared a flock of swallows and house martins – out of nowhere – the swallows skimming inches above the grass no doubt feasting on the yellow dung flies which are everywhere! The weather may not feel like May, but Swallows and House Martins appearing for the first time, it must be!
2nd May 2021 / Temp: 14.5 C / Water Level: Low
A quick check along the water lily stretch of the river where we have been told we will find Red Eyed Damselflies, the males of which rest on the lily pads waiting to pounce on passing females. No luck. They usually appear from April onwards we have been led to believe but of course this year the weather has been unseasonably cold with ground frosts still covering the ground on some nights, and although the sun was warm, the wind was from the north east and decidedly chilly so perhaps the water temperature is too cold for them to appear. No sign of Otter at either of our two survey sites, or in the centre of Frome either where they appeared to be spending the winter months, so perhaps they have moved upstream to quieter stretches of the river.
However, it was good to see that there were a good number of birds – a Little Egret, a breeding pair of Mallard, Rooks, Crows, Wood Pigeons, Pheasants and Gulls around and over the fields and Longtailed Tits, Blue Tits, Robins, Blackbirds, Chaffinches and Wrens busying themselves flitting backwards and forwards across the river and in and out of the trees. Last year’s cygnet, now almost fully grown but showing traces of brown on its wings, joined later by an adult swan who flew in repeated circles round and round over the river, the sound of its wings in the still air creating a moment of pure magic.
The brilliant yellow of the marsh marigolds and buttercups, pale mauve ladies’ smock were enough to bring out the orange tip butterflies, several bumble bees and a single tortoiseshell butterfly and even a mayfly so surely the damselflies cannot be far behind.
We also found a small clump of wild garlic, and picked enough for the a chorizo & wild garlic tortilla for supper – delicious.
Full of good cheer, we walked to the second site and spotted two Wagtails, probably the same breeding pair we had seen upstream a few weeks ago. Three Mallard, a Tree Creeper, Wren and female Chaffinch so bird life is on the move despite the arctic conditions!
22nd April 2021 / Temp: 10 C / Water Level: Low
Final round of this month’s Otter survey on yet another glorious April morning with the sun shining, the river sparkling and Blackbirds and Chaffinches serenading us as we walked. No signs of Otter at the first two sites and only two Mallard on the water. But when we reached the third site after disturbing 7 or 8 Mallard and a Mandarin from the beach we found both Otter spraint (one fresh and five recent) but also crayfish remains and lots of pad marks which was very good news. Alongside the pad marks were deer slots and much smaller prints, possibly muntjak. Normally there are several Swans, Canada Geese and Mandarin Ducks sharing this beach so when the animals come down to drink it must be pretty busy! We followed the badger path to the next site and spotted yet more more spraint on the grass on two separate places – fresh and recent – surely signs of more than one Otter?
We met the farmer on the edge of the next field, he was becoming increasingly concerned about the lack of rain in a month which the weather forecasters say might well be the driest on record. He wants to get his crop planted but with no sign of rain for the next ten days or so he says there is no point as if the seeds do germinate, they will just shrivel in the ground. In passing, he mentioned that there were lots of Hares around this year and when his son was out the previous evening with his night-vision binoculars he had spotted ten Hares in all. As he spoke, two Hares raced past us uphill across the madow and turned and watched us before crouching down until they were almost hidden in the grass. We chatted for a few minutes more and then watched as another pair of Hares dashed across the bleached field, almost golden in the sun!
We moved off, he to his work and us to check out the next site. As we arrived at the beach a Kingfisher flashed upstream and a Blackcap, perched on a branch over the river, treated us to his full repertoire. Always a bit of a clamber down onto this last beach but it usually repays our efforts and today was no exception – no less than four fresh spraint and five recent spraint desposited on five different stones across the beach! What a bonanza! We have seen more spraint along the whole of our survey stretch over this last week than we have seen for years. All very heartening.
On the walk back, rather tired, we suddenly spotted a Swallow, the first of the summer, skimming low over the grass. The meadow was scattered with dandelions (some with small bees heads buried in their centres), red deadnettle, chickweed and field speedwell and lots and lots of dung flies so the Swallows should have a feast day. I’ve read that they skim low over meadows like these so they can hoover up the dung flies – the wheel of life, cows = cow pats, cow pats = dung flies, dung flies = Swallows, on it goes.
The dry and dusty path along the top of the field with its hedge of blackthorn in full flower and hawthorns in tight bud with ground ivy, white deadnettle and periwinkle half hidden in the long lush grass made a lovely area for the butterflies, difficult to count the Orange Tips as they were never still but at least two males and one female and what looked like a Small White. A couple of pear trees were in full white delicate bloom and the small orchard of apple trees were in tight bright pink bud – we’re beginning to dream of summer.
Suddenly a Kestrel swooped up towards us, hovered for a few minutes overhead, and then flew away to perch on a telegraph wire. We had seen an eviscerated pheasant close to the river bank at the beginning of our walk. The scattering of the softer breast feathers some way away from the still fresh and bloodied bones shown signs of a tussle – probably fox, but we wondered if the Kestrel might have had a share of picking over the carcus.
20th April 2021 / Temp: 15 C / Water Level: Low
A beautiful morning, fresh, clear and full sun and although Otter signs along this stretch of the river have become increasingly rare, we still enjoy the walk and noticing the river and water meadows waking up to spring.
When we reached the weir we are always aware that we have seen Otter spraint only once (last March) in all the time we have been surveying. So imagine our astonishment when we saw first one, then two and eventually counted four recent spraints along the stones and on an ants knoll at the top of the weir. We had a bit of a spring in our step as we moved on to check the next site – a well worn area around the roots of an old tree and here we found one recent and two old spraint, all displayed prominently on several large roots – all pretty astonishing!
Walking through the water meadow to the next site we pass the trees lining the river bank and listened to the Chaffinches, Robins, Blackbirds, Chiff Chaffs, Wrens and Blue Tits singing from the trees, such a delightful sound on a sunny spring morning. One one of the trees we spotted what we think is possibly a Chocolate Mining bee sunning itself on the bark. They don’t appear until mid-April and are gone by the end of May so we don’t often see them, not enough to be sure. We were sure about the Common Carder bee and the Bee flies we saw in the same area although the photographs were disappointingly out of focus.
Another beach and astonishingly, more Otter spraint! Three recent and one old spraint, the first we have spotted since last May and before that in April and May 2019. There seems a pattern here! Although our enthusiasm is tempered with the memory of our excitement last year and the hope that the Otters were returning to what once had been a favourite spot, only to have our hopes dashed, so we are a bit more circumspect this time, they may have just been passing through – hoping for the best but prepared for the worst!!
There were at least a dozen alderleaf beetles on the old willow – not a good sign, there seem to be so many this year. We wandered up and down the beach, hovering in the hope of spotting a Kingfisher or even a Grey Wagtail but not sign of either. We did see a Tree Creeper, a Goldfinch, a pair of Mallard and on our walk up to the final site, spotted two Little Egrets and a Heron.
No sign of Otter at our final site, but our first buttercups of the year, a couple of Orange Tips (male and female) and a Brimstone butterfly and on the walk back a couple of Small Tortoiseshells. We spotted a Buzzard, heard a Raven and some Jackdaws, Pheasants of course and those dratted Wood Pigeons and Gulls but also a Dunnock.
Sunshine, birdsong, butterflies and a sparkling, dashing river trailing bright green river weed and the first tentative mayflies – how our spirits are lifted and life becomes not just bearable but positively hopeful once again.
18th April 2021 / Temp: 14.5 C / Water Level: Low
If you are fortunate enough to have 20 20 vision, you might be able to discern a pond skater in the top right hand corner of this lily pad! Not a great shot but the first of the season so it has earned its place.
After the extraordinary harvest of Otter spraint along the river a couple of days ago, we saw not the smallest sign of Otter all along the two sites we checked. However, it was a glorious day, warm and sunny so we enjoyed checking the river and water meadow for signs of life, hoping for perhaps an early damselfy but were content enough with the pond skater and a few pond snails, also clinging to the lily pads.
We watched an early crane fly puddling about in the mud on the edge of the river which was unseasonably low. April has been both much colder than usual but also much drier and for that reason the retreating water has exposed a much wider muddy beach than is often the case. We didn’t know quite what the crane fly was doing, fluttering and dipping, although we have read that crane flies do take minerals from muddy beaches so perhaps that was its purpose.
We find it almost impossible to tell one crane fly from another, particularly given the lack of clarity in our only photograph, but given the habitat and the time of the year there are not that many to choose from and so we tentatively suggest it might be a Tipula vittata which do in fact breed in mud on the edge of streams, rivers and lakes. It’s at times like these than I so envy the owners of macro lens cameras – the difference between looking through my close focusing binoculars and then through my point & snap camera is astonishing.
Ladies smocks are always a welcome sign of spring and in the area of the meadow which for a large part of the year is under water, there were a dozen or so plants although there wasn’t a sign of another plant across the whole of the rest of the field. As if on cue while looking at the ladies socks we soon afterwards spotted our first sighting of a male Orange Tip butterfly checking one for nectar. There was also a small clump of garlic mustard nestling in the shady area of long grass; it is often an unnoticed plant but if one looks carefully, the flowers are always so perfect – simple but beautifully pure.
Another sign of spring, the increasing sight of bees, here there were several bees on the dandelions which covered the meadow, Ashy Mining bee and what was possibly a Hairy Flower Bumblebee, also an early visitor, difficult to be sure as it was buried so deep in the flower head it was difficult to decipher – whatever, it’s just so lovely to see them.
Always a joy along rivers is the peep peep warning note of the Kingfisher, “here I come” followed almost immediately by a bot of blue, a flash of orange, and gone, leaving an image on the retina which can be carried for hours. We were lucky to spot this bird flashing upstream then later back downstream and later still upstream again – magical. It was also good to see a few more water birds for a change, two Little Egrets, a Heron, two Swans, a female Mallard, we heard a Coot and spotted a solitary Mandarin Duck. There is a large flock of Mandarin further upstream so maybe they are becoming more widespread.
We were so pleased to see them all, so many times when we have walked this particular stretch of the river, apart from the occasional gaggle of Mallards there have been so few water birds.
Watching the families of small birds darting from branch to branch, tree to tree we spotted Great Tits, Long Tailed Tits, Wrens, Blue Tits, two Tree Creepers and heard Blackbirds and Chaffinches.
As we were watching a Buzzard circling and mewing high overhead, we were surprised to see it joined much lower down, barely clearing the tree tops, by one of the Swans which also began flying in continuous circles above the river, the sound of its powerful wings in flight echoing across the water meadows.
Crows and Rooks joined in the fly over, together with gulls, too high to identify, but the sound of the Green Woodpecker yaffling in the distance was loud and clear enough for anyone to hear.
Whether it was the longed for sun at last having some warmth which has brought all the birds out after what has seemed a very long winter an an unseasonably cold early April, is impossible to tell, but whatever the reason – we saw more bird species busying themselves along and around the river than we have seen for time. Signs of a promising year to come we hope. But whatever the year brings, it was a joy to soak up the sun and wallow in the pleasure of surviving this long, long, plague filled winter and know that the warm days of summer are still before us. So reluctant were we to leave the river that if a dark grey cloud hadn’t blotted out the sun and the north-easterly wind reminded us that it was still spring, we might be there still!
Finally, we cannot think of April along the river without mentioning the wonderfully thick clumps of Marsh Marigolds (or Kingcups) scattered along the edges of the streams and ditches, their large, deep golden flowers out-rivalling the lesser celandines which are beginning to fade and heralding the buttercups which are yet to arrive.
Writing about fading lesser celandines reminds me of the flowers we frequently see at this time of the year. They catch the eye with their white petals and yellow centre and often is the time when I have thought we have spotted a new, rare flower and then notice they are only celandines, fading as they grow older. We know how it feels!
15th April 2021 / Temp: 11 C / Water Level: Med
Full sun, blue skies, a slight chill in the air still lingering from the morning frost, a beautiful clear and sparkling spring morning and the perfect time to attempt the first Otter survey since February. Being laid low with an illness which didn’t shift for six weeks, left me horribly feeble and imprisoned in the house, so seeing the river looking shimmering and flashing in the sunlight as it tumbled helter skelter downstream, spraying over rocks and forcing its way through the river weed made my spirits soar and my view of life transformed!
Spring was confirmed by hearing the penetrating call of a Chiff Chaff’s repetitive song and the trilling song of a Wren as we walked along the river bank and clambered down to to our first site on a stony beach. Three lots of spraint on three separate stones, one fresh, two recent, interestingly showing no signs of crayfish in both the colour of the spraint or the contents. In fact we were so uncertain we poked the recent one with a stick and took a good sniff – and there it was, the distinctive smell of Otter, jasmine sweet with hints of lavender – someone should bottle it!
As we walked to the next site the path passed masses of sweet smelling blackthorn in full flower alive with swarming insects darting about high up in their branches. They looked like bees but they were so high and so fast it was impossible to tell. Lots of white dead nettle and comfrey nestled amongst the long grass under the trees and clumps of primroses close to the river and a single Swan making its way slowly upriver matching our slow pace.
There was no sign of Otter at the next fairly sizeable long beach which we wandered over, eyes checking every stone and log and grassy knots but without success. We weren’t surprised as we had never seen any signs on this beach before, but always checked just in case. But then, at the end of the beach where there was an area of coarse, gritty sand on the edge of the water, there were dozens of pad marks leading in and out of the water and on a fairly large stone nearby four spraints, all recent and nearby another recent spraint decorating another stone, and farther on yet another! It certainly looked like Otter heaven, so very quiet, no sound disturbing the peace but the rippling sound of the river, an area undisturbed apart from the occasional fisherman, with a mixture of fast and slack water, sparkling in the sun.
As we walked to the last site, I caught sight of an alder leaf beetle which had landed on my husband’s coat. I can’t remember a year when we have seen so many. Alders vie with willows as the most numerous trees along the river so we shouldn’t be so surprised, but this year they seem to have appeared so much earlier than ever before.
Lots of white dead nettle, comfrey, ground ivy and field speedwell as well as a bed of greater periwinkle, their flowers only just opening so showing a glorious deep purple instead of the usual blander blue.
We were quite astonished when we reached the final beach which we checked out of duty rather than expectation so imagine our surprise when we there were three separate large spraints left on three prominent stones widely spaced across the beach. This stretch of river has turned out to be Otter heaven indeed!
4th April 2021 / Temp: 13 C / Water Level: Med
We thought we might treat you to a rather more visible photograph of a Grey Wagtail, taken by our daughter, which is a considerable improvement of the fuzzy image of a couple of days ago! The absense of a black bib under its bill persuades us that it is a female. We believe the other Grey Wagtail close by was a male, but not in its full summer plumage so difficult to be absolutely certain, however, both looked as if they were busy nest building. Whether the male is the same one we saw a couple of days ago, we can’t know, but he was alone so it’s good to see a pair. Both of them were feasting on the masses of midges clouding just above the water; although the wind meant the day had an edge of chill, the sun was hot and strong low down, protected from the wind by the river bank.
Managed a short walk only along the river bank and an even shorter check along the carrier stream but it was left to my daughter to do the Otter survey of both stream and river. No recent signs but we were not surprised given local news of the Otters moving upriver. The river looked wonderful, glinting in the sunlight, as it rushed and crashed over the stones of the old Roman ford and we disturbed 7 Mandarin Duck altogether, as they rose in 2s and 3s from roosting places in the trees or from the river. A Mallard couple dabbling and exploring the water weed and a single Mute Swan, who took exception to our coming too close and took off with the maximum amount of noise and fuss but when its wings were fully extended and it was flying it looked and sounded magnificent. We had been amused earlier when watching it travel downstream to see it choose the fastest part of the current to sail past at top speed for all the world like a surfer riding the waves!
We caught the tail end of a Kingfisher flashing past, watched a Tree Creeper examining a couple of willow trunks, listened to a Green Woodpecker yaffling from the trees on the edge of the water meadow, spotted Jackdaws, Crows and Rooks, several small Wrens (one very crossly and agitatedly rushing up and down what was probably a nest site) a Buzzard slowly wheeling overhead, heard a Yellowhammer’s distinctive call, and watched Blue Tits, Great Tits and a brightly coloured Chaffinch high in the tree tops along the river bank.
While we rested under the willows, a small insect felll out of the tree and landed on my husband. The photograph is not very good (one of mine!) but clear enough to tentatively identify it as one of the myriad species of leafhoppers, most likely to be a Idiocerus herrichi which are ubiquitous around willow trees.
We were extremely surprised to spot our first crane fly of the year, which after a good deal of searching in books and online decided it could only be a Tipula lateralis, which is found around water from March to October. It has been seeing such a huge number of crane flies in this particular field which alerted us to crane flies appearing for a good deal of the year when we had only noticed them before in the autumn.
Lots of red deadnettle, and white, all over the meadow, scatterings of dandelions making bright splashes of deep yellow, lesser celandine and the very first umbelifer, a poor stunted cow parsley, but showing white so it shouldn’t be long before they appear in numbers.
A few other brave insects have begun to appear as well as the cranefly and leafhopper, and of course those uncountable numbers of dung flies who shoot up at almost every step. We spotted a 7 spot ladybird, a dark edged beefly, a buff-tailed bumblebee, and so lovely to see, a Red Admiral and a Small Tortoiseshell butterfly – it really must be spring!
30th March 2021 – Temp : 20 C / Water Level: Med
After nearly four long, long weeks we plotted a daring escape from my sick-bed, wobbly legged down the stairs, thick socked, booted and fleeced, sun-hatted and clutching my trusty Papillions we made it to the garage and into the car and away, off into the bright sunshine of a perfect spring day and headed 5 minutes down the road, parked the car, and then with thumb stick assistance slid down the river bank, perched on a conveniently placed tussock of grass, and looked and looked.
We basked in the hot sun and watched the cool fast water racing downstream, tumbling over stones and being forced into a log and finding a spout to spurt out of like a miniature fountain. We watched two male Mallards squabbling over a single female and saw one withdraw defeated while the pair happily nibbled their river weed. We saw a Grey Wagtail dash up, land on a stone, look around, flick his tail up and down and dash away.
We had a lovely chat with the kind farmer over whose land we walk to carry out our monthly survey who had spotted us when he was driving his tractor between fields and came over to say hello. He’s a keen ornithologist and we always swop our latest news and sightings; he had also spotted the Green Sandpiper when going about the farm and told us about a female Mandarin who was nesting in a tree quite close to the farmhouse and on a first outing had mistakenly led her 8 chicks into the slurry mistaking it for a pond. She immediately escaped but abandoned her chicks to their fate and the farmer and his son had the unenviable task of scooping them out and putting them into a cardboard box. They retired to some distance away and waited, and sure enough the female came back, fussed and squawked and led all 8 off to the river appearing to be none the worse from their mini adventure.
We decided to wander a little way upstream and although feeling stupidly feeble, I managed a slow hobble and was rewarded by this beautiful Comma which obligingly settled on a log, displaying his patterned wings and then slowly closing until the wings closed, presenting the perfect camouflaged underwings, so well disguised on the log that we would never have noticed it walking past.
We could hear a Blackbird singing its heart out, soon joined by a male Chaffinch, a Great Tit and a Song Thrush. We spotted a tiny Wren flitting amongst the plants at the rivers edge, saw a Brimstone, that most beautiful of Spring butterflies, fluttering downriver, followed soon after by the short peep peep warning cry and then the vivid flash of brilliant, vivid blue as a Kingfisher shot downriver.
We waited, watching while a cabbage white butterfly explored the opposite bank, too far away to judge the size, a couple of Crows hunted through the trees and we heard first a Magpie and a solitary Jackdaw. We waited, noticing the brilliant yellow lesser celandine star like flowers scattered along the river bank and the wild garlic, still in bud and the lovely red flowers on the larch and still we waited, and then – at last, the peep peep, the flash of blue and the Kingfisher flashed upriver again!! Halcyon Days indeed.
17th March 2021
Exciting win for the Floodplain Meadows Partnership and it was good to see that of their defining plant list for floodplain meadows, we have identified 80% of the plants growing along our survey stretch of the Somerset Frome. Sadly no signs of Snakeshead Fritillaries but there are very few truly wild specimens left and most have been planted.
Signal Crayfish pearls (gastroliths)
We were reading an interesting piece in a Fishing Forum which was discussing American Signal crayfish pearls (gastroliths) which are often found in the stomachs of the trout they catch. The photograph above is a selection of the ones we have found, usually around Otter spraint. We knew of course that crayfish are a staple part of our local Otters’ diet but we had no idea that trout ate crayfish in such numbers as well. Not being a fisherman, when I think of trout I inevitably think of food and do wonder what crayfish fed trout tastes like – delicious I imagine, rather like salt marsh fed lamb.
Anyway to get to the point, one of the Fisherman asked the group if they knew what he had found in the Trout’s stomach could be. He said: “They were in the stomach of a good sized still water caught Rainbow trout which was also pretty stuffed with crayfish. The water I fish has a large number of American signal crayfish which appear to form a staple part of the trout’s diet as almost every fish I catch has evidence of crayfish inside.
I have noticed these before but only singly and have always just thought them small pebbles ingested when the fish were feeding on the bottom, never found five before and the uniform shape is what made me realise that these couldn’t just be stones. They feel cold to touch like stone, feel heavier than bone and are identical in shape, just vary in size.”
Another Fisherman in the Group explained that “all crayfish have a hard outer shell (exoskeleton) composed of calcium carbonate but no internal skeleton. Their body is formed of three parts; head, thorax and tail. The carapace protects both head and thorax. As the crayfish grows it must moult/shed its shell and grow a larger one. However, to do this it has to have a store of calcium to draw upon. It achieves this by growing a pair of gastroliths in its stomach prior to moulting.
The gastroliths are composed of calcium carbonate and are used to build the new shell. The process is repeated throughout the life of the crayfish. Any discarded shell may be eaten by the crayfish (or another crayfish) as an additional source of calcium. Just after moulting the crayfish is extremely vulnerable to predators as it no longer has its ‘armour plating’ to protect it from a predator.
3rd March 2021
Well, here’s a spot of good news. Yesterday we posted our photograph of the unnamed and unidentified mussel/clam on the iNaturalist observations page in the hope that someone would notice it and help us with identification. Help arrived prompty this morning from Canadian Ian Gardiner who confirmed that the shell was a European Fingernail clam (Sphaerium corneum) sometimes known as a Horny Orb mussel. A great relief because they all looked exactly the same to us so we were pleased to hear from an expert.
The clam is evidently “mainly a filter feeder and prefers healthy waters with good nutrition that provide a greater food source. These clams have exhibited a unique ability to climb up plants and structures around their habitat to find more optimal locations for feeding”. So mystery solved.
What a boon the internet is and how easy has it made identification and widened and increased our knowledge of the wildlife around us, however tiny and insignificant it might appear. We have a lot to be thankful for.
26th February 2021 / Temp: 7 C / Water Level High
Another glorious morning, sunny and bright, clear fresh sparkling air with a lingering chill from the remains of the heavy overnight frost. Perfect weather for checking Otter spraint.
We knew it was going to be a red letter day when we spotted a Kestrel perched motionless and watchful on a power line and who seemed pretty unfazed by our walking through the water meadows down to the river, we set up 6 Mallard as we approached the water and caught sight of a Chiff Chaff – a harbinger of spring. No sign of Otter though.
The two Swans preening themselves on the wide beach got reluctantly to their feet and stepped disdainfully to the water and swam off without a backward glance. Good that they moved as we then spotted a line of six clear Otter tracks across the soft gravel sand.
Although we didn’t see them until they took off, we must have alerted a small flock of 20 Mandarin Duck to our presence because they flew up from their hidden place a little way up river and, unlike the Mallard which are always so noisily complaining if they are moved, the duck were silent apart from the sound of their wings flying off across the fields.
There were three Herring Gulls sitting in the middle of the field, one last year’s juvenile, Jackdaws shouting above us, a Raven croaked, a Buzzard mewed as it circled above the woods and a Spotted Woodpecker drummed loudly, echoing in the fresh, almost springlike air. Blackbirds, Crows, Wrens, Robins, Great Tits and Long Tailed Tits yet another sign that the year is turning. There were clouds of midges everywhere both above the fields and above the river. We spotted Wolf spiders scattering at almost every steps, a couple of yellow dung flies, birds eye speedwell, the first of the year, red dead-nettle, snowdrops and even a clump of wild daffodils.
Climbing down the the beach of fine sand at our final site we were sad that there were no spraint, pad marks or any other signs of Otter. Whilst there we checked for pea/fingernail mussels as this is another very small stretch where the river drops its load. We collected a few, not many, but amongst them three or four new ones which we didn’t recognise.
We checked them with our eye glass and spotted what looked like the shell of a river limpet! We were stunned, but the backward facing horn like apex surely couldn’t be mistaken for anything else. We always thought the shape was so like the phrygian cap or liberty cap worn by the sans cullottes in the French Revolution, and this had the unmistakeable shape!When something you have desired for so long is suddently presented to you, when you are not looking for it but concentrating on something else entirely, the surprise is so strong for quite some time we didn’t quite know how to react. We couldn’t wait to get home, check all the usual sources, contrast and compare, and when we did, it was confirmed. We had actually found four minute river limpet shells, three no larger than about 3.5 mm and the other larger one was still only about 5 mm so they are not that easy to spot.
What a day! What a triumph! What celebrations – Joy unbounded!!
25th February 2021 / Temp: 10.5 C / Water Level: High
Very sunny morning, blue skies without a cloud but a chill wind. When we arrived at the river there were already 5 fishermen scattered along the bank. They were a pretty affable crew and well disposed to sharing their Otter sightings and fishing catches. One had caught a 5lb Chub and another a large 7lb Pike which he said was the reason all the other fish were making themselves scarce – nothing like a cruising Pike to clear the waterways!
No sign of Otter and very little action, although we were pleased to see 7 Mallard in the flooded stream well away from the fishermen. They scurried off when we approached but made no attempt to fly off so they probably realised we were only passing through and they could return to their favoured spot.
Last year’s cygnet was also hanging around, we see a grandfather and young boy feeding him so he now thinks that everyone is coming with food and follows us as we walk upstream. A few Long Tailed Tits, Robins, and the usual Jackdaws, Crows and Wood Pigeons. We spotted the feathered remains of a Pheasant by the hedge, probably fox as the carcus was missing and the wing feathers intact.
We were intrigued to see a half circle trail of earth showing what was probably a mole’s shallow tunnel, but what was surprising was that it led from the path in an arc to the river and only stopped at the very edge of the bank. There were no pad marks on the soft mud directly underneath, so presumably the mole realised he had run out of ground and beat a hasty retreat.
23rd February 2021 / Temp: 10 C / Water Level : High
Beautifully sunny morning with blue skies and sailing clouds and although the wind was extremely strong and chilly, it proved exhilirating and we walked out with good cheer. The water meadow and riverside is pretty empty of life at this time of the year so spotting a single yellow dung fly was something of an event! Heartening, however, to see the tentative beginnings of life returning – scattered clumps of flowering lesser celandine made cheerful splashes of colour, good to see the occasional snowdrops right on the bank of the river and red deadnettle opening its blooms, as did a solitary daisy and common chickweed.
But what confirmed that winter was finally coming to the end was the sight of hazel catkins glowing in the sunlight while being tossed about in the wind, hearing the Wrens singing for the first time for ages and Robins shouting out their territory to all and sundry. No signs of any water birds down the whole length of our survey stretch and sadly no sign of Otter either. There have been so many sightings and film of Otters upriver in the centre of the nearby town we weren’t at all surprised but the lack of water birds is rather concerning. We saw a few other birds, a few Tits and of course Crows, Gulls, Pheasants and Wood Pigeons, heard a Blackbird’s warning rattle, spotted a couple of Magpies flying over and then three Buzzards circling above the trees which raised the tone a little but overall, little action.We scoured the wide gravel beach looking for signs of Otter without success. Although the river was high and very fast, almost in spate, we could see from the lay of the grass that the whole beach had very recently been flooded so the water was dropping.
We love exploring this beach which in summer is a mass of flowering plants feeding butterflies, beetles, bees and hoverflies so a riot of colour, but it has its delights whatever the season. On this occasion shreds of white plastic had been caught in the dead reeds when the water level dropped leaving them fluttering and streaming in the wind like so many ragged prayer flags on a Tibetan hillside.
As the current flows fast around the bend in the river it creates an eddy on the inside of the bend forming an inlet where the water is slowed and where it deposits finer material. At the farthest end of the beach there are two pockets of fine sand where the water is slowed down yet more downstream of a tree and that’s where it drops sediment like sand and shells. The advantage of winter when the beach is exposed is checking for duck mussel shells (two small closed ones today – very few on past numbers) and for the tiny pea mussels which are only about 4-5 mm in size.We have had innumerable tries at identifying this tiny mussel (which could equally be a nut orb mussel or a horny orb mussel!) and thought we had hit the jackpot with fine-lined pea mussel but abandoned that idea when we found out how rare it is. When we looked at the list Penny Green found in the River Adur on the Knepp Estate :
Horny Orb Mussel, Lake Orb Mussel, Caserta Pea Mussel, Porous-shelled Pea Mussel, Rosy Pea Mussel, Short Ended Pea Mussel, Henslow’s Pea Mussel and Shining Pea Mussel
and realised that there are still further 8 species to chose from, we threw up our hands in despair and settled for calling them just “pea mussel” or even”orb mussel” and left it at that! Whatever, these tiny pea mussels are really pleasing to see. Although most only live for about a year producing one brood, under certain conditions their growth is much slower and they can live for several years and have several broods during that time. These smaller mussels are hermaphrodites, which deliver living larvae. Conditions must be pretty good here as the edge of the water in the small area of coarse, very dark brown sand, there is a line of these empty mussel shells. What always draws the eye are the white ones, presumably bleached by the action of the water against the sand, but when we look closer, the duller but less worn light brown newer shells are just as abundant. As mussels filter and thus improve water quality for other species such as fish, eels, otters etc, even such tiny creatures as these are a very welcome sight as they fulfil an important function in the overall quality and cleanliness of the river.
The great old willow tree is a bit of a shadow of its former self since its main limbs were lopped by the fisher folk so our main lichen garden and is no more, no doubt to a local stoat who use it as his hunting ground, but there was a nice clump of lichen on a nearby tree – fanfare of trumpets lichen with what may be the leafy yellow Candelaria concolor but I’m not altogether certain.
We walked back along the edge of the field hoping for some protection from the strong wind in our faces, checking the stream which was clogged with new plants, bright vivid green of new growth, and admired the beautiful arrow shaped leaves of the lords & ladies plant, splattered with dark brown sploges. Fingers crossed that all these signs really do signal that this long, dark winter, full of tragedy, worry and endless shocks is finally coming to the end and we can all welcome spring with a lightening of the heart.
6th February 2021 / Water Level : High / Temp : 7.5 C
A fine afternoon, chilly and damp but sunny spells and clouds drifting across blue skies. The river was high and fast and what was particularly noticeable was the height and flow of the water in the carrier stream – quite the highest we had ever seen. There were the first signs of early spring everywhere, a scattering of celandines and lots of clumps of snowdrops in flower all along the river bank, the hazel catkins a good length and even the wild chives were already 9 inches or so high when our cultivated chives at home have only just appeared.
As we walked along the carrier stream we suddenly saw a Green Sandpiper lifting from where the stream broadens out as still and quiet as a mill pond – a perfect environment for Sandpipers. This is the spot where our daughter spotted the Green Sandpiper the last time we came here so it seems extremely likely that the bird might have been here all winter and will stay until it flies off in March back to Sweden or Finland where it will remain until July.
When we reached the pond area we saw lots of holes in the mud we did wonder if it had been pecking with its long beak searching for food except of course they rarely do this, they more usually pick up insects from just below the surface of the water so they are more likely to have been worm holes. While we stood examining the mud, a Song Thrush began singing loud and clear from the tree nearby – so beautifully, so heartbreakingly and heard for the first time this year.
There seemed plenty of tits, both Long Tailed and Blue Tits, we disturbed a fat little Wren flying low along the stream, Gulls, Wood Pigeons and Crows as usual overhead and we could hear the loud cackle of lots of Jackdaws but they remained hidden. We heard a Raven’s croak twice during the walk, but whether it was the same or one of a pair we couldn’t tell, but we love to hear a Raven’s greeting us when we walk.
To add to our pleasure we spotted 2 lots of recent Otter spraint which was surprising given there have been so many sightings of Otters in the Rodden Nature Reserve in the centre of Frome, we thought they had probably moved on. There were two or three other droppings which looked as if they might have been owl, possibly a Tawny Owl by the nearby neat pile of bones.
What there was in abundance were mole hills everywhere! Almost all follow the course of the river, quite close to the banks, or near the hedgerows on the edge of the fields. There must a goodly supply of earth worms in these water meadows given the number of mole hills and also the groups of badger setts along the banks on the rising ground.
18 January 2021 / Temp: 7.5 C / Water Level: Med. – Rising
A very quick dash between showers to get in an exercise walk which was pretty bracing in the north easterly wind and the water meadows did not look very enticing with the low cloud and gloomy light. Of the two trees caught on the weir, the trunk of one looked to be petty substantial but heavy rains are forecast for the next few days so perhaps the river will rise enough to lift them off and send them downstream. The Angling Club removed lots of trees and branches from the river back in September but unfortunately well before the Friends of the Somerset River Frome drew attention in their latest newsletter to the advantages branches and logs offer fish and other wildlife as shelter, as well as slowing the current to help prevent flooding. (See Instream Habitat on our September Blog page).
Nothing of interest all the way around but a lesser celendine in flower between two buds and a single cygnet on its own, a stark contrast to the abundance of spraint and the spotting of a rare winter visitor of only two days ago. The cygnet was one of last year’s young, still retaining its grey-pink beak but having lost quite a number of its brown feathers making its unusually mottled colouring and appearance quite striking.
There were two fisherman along the bank, neither of whom had caught anything. We stopped briefly to chat about the state of the river and Otter spotting. Not surprisingly one of them had seen Otters fairly frequently, always in the very early morning just after dawn so if we are serious about spotting we must get out earlier. Although we are early enough risers, getting up at around 5.30am, we are slow to get going what with coffee and breakfast and newspapers and crosswords and our reluctace is reinforced as it is difficult not to imagine a scenario when we arrive at the riverside to pace up and down in the cold for our hour’s exercise, see nothing but feeling convinced the Otters might be a couple of miles up or down stream or even just around the bend out of sight and we have only just missed it. Everything comes to he who waits… we will wait and trust to our luck!
16 January 2021 / Temp: 9 C / Water Level: High
Oh the joy! First walk for six long, long weeks tied to the house with a broken toe – too late for the earlier sunshine but ecstatic to be outside whatever the weather enjoying some longed for fresh air and exercise.
The rewards were manifold and totally unexpected. At well spaced intervals all along the carrier stream we found fresh, recent and old spraint, chock full of fish bones and scales as well as signal crayfish remains. The water from the river directed down the carrier stream was higher than we have ever seen it and although fast, a good deal quieter than the main river. This would no doubt make more attractive hunting grounds for roaming Otters, particularly if these are the mother and two cubs which have been reguarly spotted father upstream in the centre of the town, both in the river but also recorded investigating the inside of a derelict boathouse.
When we reached an area where the carrier stream widens and the cattle have created beaches on either side, our daughter Rebecca (who had joined us for our support-bubble walk) spotted a Green Sandpiper on one of the beaches. Oh for the sharp eyes of youth! It flew off before we arrived but we were all so excited. This is only the second time a Green Sandpiper, a winter visitor, has been spotted on our survey stretch, the first time not by us but last year by the farmer who is a keen birdwatcher. Rather more mundane sightings were merely the usual Jackdaws, Rooks, Crows and Robins, and, rather more interestingly a Kestrel being mobbed by a Gull.
Walking back along the river bank, more fresh spraint and also anal jelly, and then spraint filled with blue-green irridescent beetle shells and snail shells which may or may not have been Otter (Owl pellets or Fox scat were suggested) and scat along a branch of a river bank alder. We also saw the remains of a blackbird, its bright yellow beak fully agape possibly a sign of its death throes.
The river was in full spate, fast and furious, churning around the flooded trees, making the most extraordinarily noisy rushing, swirling splashings which struck us that a recording might aid sleep in these turbulant times!
Our hour being up we very reluctantly left the water meadows and headed home. It was a brilliant first outing and as one of our number received his Oxford-Astra Zeneca vaccination against Covid 19 the day before, we hope like the first signs of spring, this might be the first signs of the epidemic beginning to come under control, the tragic news of the relentless numbers of deaths will end and we can return to fully enjoying the woods and rivers once again.
Happy New Year!! And are we happy to write as it signals the end of plague year 2020! Good riddance family traumas, marriage breakdowns, job losses, broken bones, arthritis flare up and hospitals and welcome 2021 – may this with its promise of Covid 19 vaccines and spring on the way be the new beginning we are all hoping for.
2020 wasn’t a complete disaster, we added an astonishing 59 new species to our records list including the wonderful Grasshopper Warbler (the first sighting for over 50 years!), dozens of saddle-case caddisfly larvae and our first sighting of Stoneloach and a Diving Beetle, the beautiful Black Stoneflower lichen and our favourite, the extraordinary Gasteruption jaculator (see photo of the year above) parasitic wasp! We were pleased to add our Beautiful Demoiselle damselfly to Durham University’s wing measurement study and see our cauliflower slime mold photograph added to Ispot’s permanent collection.
But most of all was the delight and pleasure we experienced on our Otter hunts, trekking across the water meadows, clambering down the river banks, wading though the river with our dipping nets, we blessed our good fortune in being able to experience all the joys of a beautiful lowland river throughout the year.
16th December 2020
Breaking News : Very exciting news that over the past ten days there have been 3 confirmed sightings of a mother and two cubs being spotted in the centre of Frome – upriver from our survey stretch. Unfortunately two were at dusk and the morning sighting was bugged by heavy cloud so no photographs. However, fortunately the two cubs exploring David Sugrue’s boathouse in early autumn were caught on his trail camera.
9th December 2020
Cardiff University Otter Project message: Last post mortems of 2020! Busy day in the lab; 17 new arrivals (12 from south Wales, and 5 from East Anglia), 7 post mortems completed, samples archived. From a tiny juvenile found on a river bank in Worcestershire, to a large adult male with royal otter spotting* from Wiltshire. We look forward to examining more otters in 2021.
*A Cardiff University photograph of a previous Royal Otter from Worcestershire. These markings are extremely rare but very beautiful.
1st December 2020 / Temp: 6 – 9 C / Water Level: High
It was such a beautiful early winter morning as we set out to check for signs of Otter for our survey – full sun, blue skies and a light wind which was cold but as most of the time we were protected by the trees the air was not nearly as bitter as we expected.
No sign of Otter at the bridge or the tunnel but we had a good chat with a fellow who was magnet fishing. It was the first time he had explored this particularly stretch of water and he was interested to see if there were any interesting finds. He said that he enjoyed getting out in the fresh air through the winter lock-down and checking and clearing debris from the river was he felt a good use of his time. His main catch was usually abandoned fishing gear and cans and even road signs which have been thrown into the water which he hauls up and disposes of. He gets huge satisfaction in removing detritus which sullies the water quality and might trap fish but always with the hope that he might find something a little more interesting.
We understood what he meant about hoping for something interesting as we returned to checking along the river bank and the exposed beaches, but in fact eventually we were extremely lucky to spot Otter spraint not on one of the many large stones scattered near the water but among the leaves on the raised ground alongside. We were quite surprised to see broken signal crayfish claws in the spraint as although they don’t hibernate, crayfish are usually much less active in winter so more difficult for the Otter to catch.
One of the many alders along the river bank was riddled with four or five pretty large woodpecker holes (probably the Great Spotted Woodpecker) while all the others are untouched. Some of the trees were hung with male catkins which always look particularly striking in winter, their branches laden with the soft purple coloured catkins, beautiful in the sunlight against the blue sky when there is so little colour about.
There were lots of specimen trees dotted amongst the alders, sallows and hawthorns along that particular stretch, Mahonia, Silver Variegated Holly, Weeping Willow and the winter flowering Daphne, it’s pale pink flowers scenting the air, all of which must have been planted 30/40 years ago by the size of the trees to create an ornamental woodland. The tree which caught the eye was the Wild Service tree, vivid purple red leaves glowing in the sunshine.
While clambering with difficulty along the river edge below this little wood, searching the stones for spraint, a squirrel scampered up to examine the ground inches from my boots, looking very fluffy and healthy, no doubt full of hazel nuts which had given it’s fur a glossy gleam. Suddenly it caught sight of me – gazed terrified for a moment, before leaping and dashing off at lightening speed.
The tits were very busy all along the riverbank trees, Great Tits, Blue Tits and family parties of Long Tailed Tits as well as Chaffinches and Robins flitting from tree to tree. We heard a Magpie rattling, Jackdaws chattering, Crows cawing and a Blackbird’s warning cry. A beautiful Little Egret, snowy white and majestic, lifted languidly from a tree and flew off across the water meadow, while a pair of Mallards puttered about on the river. In the meadow on the other side of the river we spotted Herring Gulls making a great deal of noise as they explored the grass around the cattle. Surprisingly these were the first time we had seen this species of gull on the river.
Several flowering crab apple trees which stood in a line in the clipped contoneaster hedge were absolutely laden, their fat orange-red fruit looking ripe and luscious. Good news for the birds when winter really sets in, these smaller fruits often attract Redwings, Thrushes and Robins – and the laden trees offer more than enough for a feast for all!
12th November 2020 / Temp: 10.5 C / Water Level: High
Blue skies, full sun, chilly, breezy wind – the perfect day for a stroll by the river and the rhyne and the meadow in between where every tree seemed to be covered in moss and lichen, including these tiny Bark Bonnets appearing out of the moss on a tree trunk leaning precariously over the river.
On another tree we spotted a growth of Black Stone Flower lichen, a first for the river, and one of my favourite lichens, the only one I know which has the lovely black or brown sheen on the underside of its leaves.
We saw flies every where, clustering together sunning themselves on tree trunks, or in the case of this rather beautiful Noon fly, on fence posts. He stayed still long enough for me to get a photograph, a little out of focus, but clear enough to see his gold face and tiny gold paws as well as his striking gold epaulettes.
Despite the beautiful morning, there seemed to be little other activity, few birds – a Blackbird rattling its alarm call as it flew out of the hedge when we arrived, two Ravens calling and flying overhead, flocks of Jackdaws, Rooks and Crows flying down from the colony up on the hill and strutting and circling the cows and a solitary Heron sqawking loud enough to draw our eyes and we spotted it, flying over, quite some distance away.
What was most notable, apart from the flies, were the cluster of wasps which appeared amongst the ivy. We have rarely seen so many so late in the year, the longer we looked, the more appeared so possibly they are helping the queen set up a new nest.
But the most striking sight was of course the lichen, at its best at this time of the year – the Common Greenshield below nestling among the wood bristle moss glowing in the sunlight, each growth forming a delightful garden along the branches of alder, ash and hawthorns along the river bank and willows beside the carrier stream.
The river was flowing fast and high, turbulent over the stones of the old Roman ford and swirling and flooding all of the beaches where we often see Otter spraint, so maybe if there was a passing Otter, he didn’t stop and leave a calling card – no sign of Otter anywhere.
4th November 2020 / Temp: 9.5 C / Water Level: High
Glorious sunshine and despite the low temperature and early morning frost, the sun was so warm it felt lovely to be pottering along the river.
We decided to survey the small brook which was the tail drain of the original meadow flooding system running along the edge of the fields. We decided to work up from where the leat or brook drained into the river as we had read that damselflies and dragonflies often lay their eggs in the quieter, calmer waters of these waters. We had intended to check it in the spring but didn’t manage it so it seemed a good idea to check it now before winter sets in. The bed of the brook had quite a layer of mud on top of which was a good layer of fallen leaves so we tried a figure of eight pond dipping technique through the river weed, and the aquatic plants. It proved to be difficult to do this without disturbing the muddy bed as the water here is not very deep but we did manage to scoop up a few treasures.
As might as have been expected, there were lots of snails! Every net had at least three or four pond snails and rather more interestingly, an almost equal number of juvenile fish.
Unfortunately most of our photographs were out of focus – but we believe the pond snails above look like wandering pond snails, and the juvenile fish a common groby. We were sad that the photo of the ramshorn snail was not clear enough to ID. There was a common minnow (we see lots of these in the main river).
The above is the only clear photograph of a pond snail. However, we did find freshwater hoghouse, a swimming mayfly nymph and what we think might have been a caseless cadisfly larva. The one somewhat intriguing find was a black spider that may or may not have been a water spider. We have never seen one before, the photograph was out of focus so we are really unable to confirm or deny.
Not altogether a satisfying morning’s work but the weather was glorious, it was lovely to be out in the sunshine (despite the noise of the constant guns of a pheasant shoot in a field on the edge of the woods a couple of fields away) and it was interesting to see there was lots of life despite the cold weather and frosts beginning to set in.
28th October 2020
A wide ranging report in The Frome Times about the current state of the Somerset River Frome including an interview with Sue Everett of Friends of the River Frome and details of a town council meeting where this matter was raised and discussed. A letter will be sent to the local MP asking for intervention with Wessex Water to reduce the amount of raw sewage flowing into the river. The Council and Friends of the River Frome are also liaising with local farmers to tackle the problem of run-off of pollutants into the river. To read the full story, follow the link below.
16th October 2020
An interesting article in The Guardian (below) on the Environment Agency’s latest data on river quality in rivers in England also has links to its detailed analysis.
The stretch of the Somerset River Frome which we survey was deemed Moderate for both Overall Water Body and Ecological but Fail for Chemical pollution.
A couple of areas leap out – every year from 2013 until 2018 the Chemical content was deemed Good but in 2019 it was deemed Fail. As there was a stricter test for this latter period, it is difficult to know whether the pollution is worse or whether it is simply down to the new test – common sense would lead one to suppose the latter.
The Somerset River Frome receives discharges from sewage works at Rode, Beckington and Frome, trade effluents e.g. cooling waters, boiler blowdown water and dairy effluent. For our stretch the pollution caused by continuous sewage discharge by the Water Industry and pollution from agricultural and land management (PBDE and Mercury and its compounds) were already in the river when it reached the beginning of our survey stretch, i.e. the confluence of the Mells River with the Somerset River Frome. The Environment Agency data doesn’t give details of whether the pollution becomes heavier downstream from that point so it is difficult to draw any conclusions about the health of this particular stretch of river.
Nevertheless, it is very likely that cattle from the dairy farm and the creamery factory outfall add pollution to the river. 50 years ago the entire River Frome was category 5, the highest pollution category, so there have been improvements, enough for Dippers, Kingfishers, Brown Trout, Stoneloach and invertebrates like saddle-case caddis fly, damselfly, mayfly and dragonfly larvae to survive.
However, despite PBDEs being banned in Europe since 2004, these pollutants are still found in virtually all European river fish, including those of the UK. We do not know the long term consequences of these pollutants, not only on the entire flora and fauna of the river but also on the Herons, Little Egrets, Otters and others at the top of the food chain but Bernd Heinrich in his book A Year in the Maine Woods as long ago as 1994 drew attention to these consequences when he observed: “Eagles along Maine inland lakes, rivers, and marine habitats reveal some of the highest levels of mercury and PCB contamination ever recorded, and they are among the slowest to reproduce of any birds in the whole of North America”. He also notes that the Bald Eagles near his log cabin although they built nests were unable to produce young which he believed was a direct result of these pollutants.
We contacted the Freshwater department of Earthwatch and asked for their thoughts on the Environment Agencies failing our water quality and our finding so many species which are normally only associated with clean water.
Kes Scott-Somme, Research Assistant in the Freshwater department replied:
“I would imagine that the Environment Agency ran more tests than just for nitrates and phosphates, so it may be an issue of something like heavy metals or other chemicals. Saying that, you can have high nitrate levels and still have a lot of animals present, nitrate pollution tends to lead to excessive growth of problematic algae, but if you have a resilient and healthy system, it can cope with quite a bit of nutrient input. Similarly, phosphate pollution is usually quite localised, so you might have an area where they are impacting the environment, but further downstream could be ok.
The Environment Agency operate using the Water Framework Directive ‘one out, all out’. So if you fail for chemical pollution, your river fails to get good status, even if you have lots of wildlife present. This is actually a good principle, because if you have issues of chemical pollution, your system may be able to cope with it to an extent, but if it continues, over time the quality of the habitat will deteriorate. It’s the science version of being ‘on the safe side’ and to make sure there isn’t any ‘optimistic sampling’.”
We found this extremely helpful and we hope to take up her suggestion of testing the water on a regular basis to check any signs of deterioration from the present levels.
“Sound the All Clear!!”
15th October 2020 / Temp : 10.5 C / Water Level: Falling
Another day another Otter hunt – the last stretch of our survey sites and one which we hope to complete quickly as the strong north-easterly was at our back, chilling us to the bone.
No signs of Otter at any of the four sites which was a great disappointment, but Mallard gallore! We counted 27 altogether as well as 17 Mandarin Ducks, 2 Heron and 1 Little Egret so good news on the water bird front; we also heard a Green Woodpecker and a Raven and watched two Buzzards slowly circling above us as we walked. We reached a stretch of river bank protected from the wind so the sun felt warmer and despite the lack of Otter signs it felt good to be able to enjoy such a beautiful stretch of countryside.
Lots of mushrooms like shaggy inkcaps growing in the grass, bracket and honey fungus appearing on the trees and lichen covering the tree trunks, branches and on the fallen logs (like common powder horn above), cows in the fields, large flocks of Rooks and Jackdaws scavenging together in the fields and clouds of gulls circling above the hillside, turning leaves, golden yellow and pink-purple, scarlet berries and black-purple sloes – a classic autumn scene.
14th October 2020 / Temp: 13.5 C / Water Level: Falling
A beautiful autumn morning, the air clear and fresh and good tree cover provided protection from the stiff wind and we were excited when we came across the site of a Roman ford which the owners of the land had told us about. Extraordinary to think that just from the sloping banks on either side, the stony bed and the shallowness of the water the site is perfectly discernible. As if to salute the area, an Otter had left his calling card on a large (possibly Roman!) stone! Interestingly it’s the first spraint we have seen in years without any signal crayfish remains and instead of our usual red coloured spraint, this one was a classic black tarry specimen. Whether this shows that the crayfish are already retreating to their burrows for the winter or some other reason, we will be interested to see as the season progresses.
We were surprised to see this beautiful opium poppy in flower so late in the season and to notice quite a few hawksbit and scarlet pimpernel also in flower. The hedgerows had a good crop of sloes and hawthorn berries and the grass under the trees scattered with fungus so it was definitely autumn.
Finally, a totally unknown lichen growing on the bridge. Something to spend the long dark winter nights trying to identify – like chasing rainbows, totally pointless but enjoyable. However, there is of course an outside possibility that it is Varrucaria mamoria a crustose endolithic lichen which grows on limestone rocks and as the bridge is built of limestone, is it a strong likelihood? Hmmm.
13th October 2020 / Temp: 8.5 C / Water Level: Falling
Beautiful morning, occasionally hazy, mostly full sun so despite the chill wind it felt wonderful to walk feeling the warmth on our backs and seeing the sun turning the autumn leaves to cascades of gold.
As we set out we were thrilled to see a Common Crane flying overhead – a sign of long life – so we continued walking with a definite spring in our step! When we heard of a Common Crane in Coleford in August and sightings over Colliers Way we never expected to see one here but all very exciting! We heard a Raven and a Buzzard, saw Magpies, Robins, Blackbirds, Rooks and Jackdaws and first a Swan and Cygnet gliding downriver past us, then two adult Swans and on the way back a Little Egret, also flying over.
Sadly, still no sign of Otter at any of the three sites we surveyed and despite walking the entire river and back along the stream in the hope of some signs of life, but to no avail. We still have two more stretches to complete the survey and hope to see spraint or pad marks at one of them at least, otherwise it begins to seem like a repeat of the past couple of years when Otter signs disappeared with the end of the optimal period for Signal Crayfish in October.
Everywhere was very quiet with virtually no signs of life; a number of common wasps, noon flies and cluster flies on almost every fence post, but the pink leaved guelder rose branches were heavy with bright shiny scarlet berries, the spindle trees were displaying their striking Schiaperelli pink, there were crowded clusters of fungi in the grass and the sun was shining – autumn is not without its compensations.
11th October 2020 / Temp: 13.5 C / Water Level: Med
No signs of Otter at either of the two sites but what was striking at the first was the field yet again flooded when the pasture had barely time to recover from last autumn and winter’s almost permanent flooding. This year there were 18 Mallard swimming around in the newly created lake (last year it was gulls). When three more Mallard flew over and looked to land, it seemed the whole group set up the most almighty racket, quacking away, possibly telling them to clear off there wasn’t enough room, despite the large area of water available! We did wonder why they preferred the flooded meadow to the river – possibly warmer as it was in full sun all day?
There were 9 more Mallard swimming around above the weir (which was in ferocious spate) and it was good to see the goodly number of ducks as there was no sign of any other water birds, in fact few birds at all – a few Crows, a small party of Tits and of course the Pheasants.
Few insects about, although several splendidly coloured Noon flies displaying their golden epaulettes, a Red Darter sunning instelf on the
fishing jetty and quite a few, a dozen or so Ivy bees and common wasps around the ivy flowers many of which are beginning to form berries so they didn’t get much of a feast.
There are so few plants still in flower, apart from the water forget-me-not, some rather bedraggled looking marsh marigolds and tansy, there seemed precious little for the insects to feed on.
It was such a beautiful afternoon, brilliantly clear air, bright sunshine, blue skies and puffy white clouds and although the north-easterly wind was brisk, the warm sun ensured we felt warm.
We moved on from the water meadow to the bridge where the banks are very wooded. In a sunny glade beside the river there were clouds of winter gnats doing their mating dance, and bright black beetles clustering in the crevices of the sequoia tree bark. However although there were no signs of Otter, we did see Mink pad marks in the mud around the tunnel where the rhine stream joins the main river. We haven’t seen any signs of Mink for so long we had rather hoped they had moved on, but possibly because there is less Otter traffic or some other reason, it seems they are back.A couple of months ago when we were chatting to some of the working party clearing the river, they drew our attention to fish head surrounded by scales which they believed was Otter kill. We were not quite so sure as Otter eat fish head first and are more likely to leave the body of the fish rather than the head and the scat was definitely not Otter (or Mink) and we thought at the time is was Stoat. Although we knew that fish is a part of Stoat’s diet, we didn’t (and still don’t) know if they eat the head, in fact we know very little about Stoats – merely that they run up and down or lie along willow branches!However, all thought of Otters, Stoats, Mink or anything else was washed from our minds when we returned to the river just in time to see a Kingfisher flash downstream and then within minutes a pair of Kingfishers flashed back upstream, the strong sunlight highlighting their startling flash of vivid cyan and blue. How wonderful when we were angsting that there were so few water birds, to be rewarded with a pair of Kingfishers. How lucky we feel when life sometimes offers us such totally unexpected and delightful treats.
8th October 2020 / Temp: 14 C / Water level : Rising
No signs of Otter on our very rapid survey or two sites. Access to the third site was blocked by the Fishing Club so we will have to discuss this development with our survey co-ordinator and perhaps remove it from the list of sites which we survey.Fallen trees, branches and accompanying debris had partially obstructed one side of the pier and a large extent of one arch of the bridge. The river has been very low for most of the summer and the recent continuous heavy rain has cleared the river of fallen trees from farther upstream. If the Fishing Club had not cleared the river farther downstream, this extra load would have caused serious problems, possibly flodding.Very little else to see except a Little Egret perched alone in a large tree at the end of the field – sad to think that last year we had seen 7 Little Egret in the same tree.
17th September 2020
No sign of Otter at any of the four sites, no water birds along the whole stretch, but 3 Emperor and 1 Red Darter dragonflies, 4 Large White butterflies, innumerable wasps and crane flies while Magpie, Wren and Grey Wagtail were the only birds apart, of course, from the dratted Wood Pigeons and as usual at this time of year escaping Pheasants everywhere fleeing from the nearby shoot!A major three-day work party of volunteers from the Frome and District Angling Association, Canoe Club and other supporters cleared of a number of large trees and debris from the river and overgrown vegetation from the bankside. There now appear to be 25 pegs on a stretch of the river we survey, each peg with a wide clearance on either side, where trees have been severely cut back or removed and the bankside completely bare.
Expert assessment, advice and guidance was given and followed but to the untrained eye it does appear that the river will be more susceptible to pollutant (particularly phosphates) run-off from the fields which the previous plantlife and tree roots helped to absorb. The recent Defra report on the health of UK rivers drew attention to phosphates and other chemicals which, combined with untreated sewage (continuous on this stretch), is a particular problem in the overall health of the River Frome. However, we are certain that this has been taken into account and no doubt some of these plants will be encouraged to grow next spring to offer home to the midges and mosquitos the many species of dragonflies and damselflies currently inhabiting the river feed on as well as hiding places for the sedge flies during the daytime and resting places for the newly emerged mayflies as their wings form and harden.
Of all the remedial work, we mourn the loss of a large branch of the ancient willow tree which stood proud in a central place of honour next to the bank on the shingle beach, the largest and longest of the several limbs which have been removed.
This old tree was a haven, a veritable garden, of so many species of moss and lichen and for some reason beloved of stoats whose hairs we often found unaccountably caught up in the bark. Why they would run along, or lie on the branch is a mystery we have long since ceased to try and fathom!
In the long dark days of autumn and winter when so little of the countryside seems to be living, it is always a delight to examine the vivid colours and varied shapes of these organisms – a miniature oasis, a tiny Eden, gone forever. Fortunately these photographs, taken on the 7th September, record the last flowering.
NOTE: Problems to guard against in maintaining good river habitat include
Intensive fisheries management
Regular ‘weed’ cuts in the channel; fencing off and mowing of strips along the bank; infilling and stabilisation of banks; removal of unwanted fish species (e.g. pike, grayling); and high stocking with farm-reared trout.
Retain aquatic, marginal and riverbank vegetation
Traditional river restoration techniques may be particularly damaging for invertebrate species that rely on the presence of marginal and riparian vegetation to provide shelter and emergence sites. Weed cutting has been suggested as the cause of the serious decline of the River Test’s best known caddis fly the Grannom (Brachycentrus subnubilus), nationally a common species. If fishing areas or ‘swims’ are to be cut in the natural vegetation their location should be rotated on an annual basis to allow re-growth of the vegetation.
Work liable to damage marginal and riverbank vegetation should aim to leave a mixture of species and sward heights. Such work should be undertaken on one bank only and on short stretches such as 50 metres in each 200 metres in any one year, with cut material gathered and stored in heaps in non-sensitive areas. When mowing paths on the river bank for access by anglers, leave an uncut fringe of tall herbaceous vegetation as a screen between the path and the river to provide shelter for adult invertebrates.
Riverside trees are an important component of the chalk river habitat, providing shelter for a number of rare and nationally scarce species including the fly Cosmetopus dentimanus and Scarce chaser dragonfly (Libellula fulva). The White clawed crayfish also favours sites with overhanging bankside vegetation. However, if the river or stream becomes completely shaded by overhanging trees, this can have an adverse effect on aquatic invertebrates, so it is important to maintain a balance.
16th September 2020
A paper has been published and put online by the Otter Project team at Cardiff University entitled:
Biological and anthropogenic predictors of metal concentration in the Eurasian Otter, a sentinel of freshwater ecosystems.
The conclusion* arrived at was that none of the pollutants listed in the graph below were sufficiently concentrated to adversely affect the Otters.
NB : *This conclusion would also correspond with the fact that there are other animals we have observed which are associated with clean rivers (such as Dippers, Kingfishers, cased caddifly and mayfly larvae, dragonfly & damselfly nymphs etc) which are also able to tolerate the degree of polution shown.
Explanatory note on the graph :
The amount of concentration of each metal in the Otters varies. The vertical scale gives the amount of concentration. Each metal is given its own vertical spread. The thick horizontal line in each case shows the half way mark (the median) of concentration for each metal. The “box” surrounding it shows the range of the central half of the amount of concentration. The “whiskers” leading up and down show the extent of the central three quarters of the concentration. There are individual Otters where the amount of concentration lies outside this range. They are shown by individual black dots.
To read the article in full, please click on the link below.
10th September 2020 / Temp: 13.5 – 18.5 C / Water Level: Med-Low
Scorpion fly – Panorpa communis
We surveyed our last stretch of four sites on a beautiful September morning, blue skies and temperature rising as the sun reached its zenith, a wonderful day for a hunt.
No signs of Otter at our first site but we disturbed 8 Mallard and the air was full of Crows and Jackdaws. We also saw a dead pheasant tucked into the long grass low down on the river bank – it was sitting and by all appearances undamaged which lead us to wonder how it had died. The night was unseasonably cold but that seemed unlikely – a small mystery.
On to the next site where first a flock of 13 Mandarin rose almost silently from the river, followed by another 4 and then another 14 – 31 altogether about 10 more than the largest numbers last year. A Grey Heron soon joined them but no signs of Little Egrets which was disappointing as we had seen 7 roosting in one of the trees last autumn, although it was good to hear the plaintive mew of a circling Buzzard as we walked. We also drew a blank on Otters at the third site but what was noticeable, this area still being out of the sun, was the uncountable number of hammock spider’s webs in the grass, very striking, they seemed they seemed to be everywhere.
A great relief to find Otter spraint on our very last site – 1 fresh and 1 recent and lots of old dried sprint covering the stones of the beach exposed by the low water. We saw and heard a Kingfisher – confirming it was a halcyon day and when we heard a Raven calling a greeting we knew all was perfect in the “best of all possible worlds”!
The two spiders which we spotted are difficult to identify, our best guess (and it is despite much research) still a guess is that they are grass spiders, Tibellus oblogus, which are often found in sand dunes near the coast but also in damp places like grassland.
By now the temperature was steadily rising and the sun was really hot, so we were not surprised to see Large White, Orange Tip (female) and Green Veined White butterflies fluttering both across the meadows and all along the hedgerows.
Walking back across the dandelion scattered field, we noticed almost every flower head held a honey bee or hover-fly burrowing away. Evidently dandelions produce lots of pollen so at this time of the year provide a very welcome feeding station for pollinators. The farmer has a couple of hives so that honey bees always seem to predominate and most of them had their pollen baskets on their legs pretty full.
7th September 2020 / Temp: 13.5 – 16.5 C / Water Level: Med- Low
An early start to catch some sun and we were hugeIy rewarded for our effort – if you peer very carefully at the above photograph you might be able to discern a bird, you might even be able to see that it is an murky image of the Dipper we were thrilled to see from the bridge – the first we have ever seen in this particular stretch of the river. It hopped around from stone to stone and dipped its head under the water, seemingly searching, but during the whole time we were watching, it never dived down to fish.
A Grey Wagtail was its constant companion – also hopping and flying between the stones. We can only believe what the clusters of caddis fly cases upstream of this spot seemed to indicate – at the moment the river is pretty clean. A really cheerful start to our otter hunt, made even more spirit-lifting by spotting fresh spraint on the bridge pier, opposite the cluster we spotted two days ago – really great news.
There were no signs of Otter at two of our other sites and we didn’t survey the third – the new young bull which has replaced Ernie looked rather too energetic for our liking. However we were pleased to see a pair of Swans with 3 cygnets by the main beach, a Little Egret by the weir and heard a Green Woodpecker from across the water meadows. Brown Hawker, Red Darter and Emperor dragonflies, Banded Demoiselle damselflies and Large White butterflies were out and about enjoying the warm sunshine, wasps and noonflies sunbathed on the telegraph poles, lots of alderleaf beetles on the brambles and clumsy crane flies everywhere in the grass, as difficult to avoid in autumn as the grasshoppers in spring.
No signs of Otter at the last three sites but more Large White butterflies, honey bees, hoverflies, grasshoppers, pond skaters and craneflies, the trifid bur-marigold in flower along with, rather surprisingly, several large clumps of marsh marigold, water forget-me-not and purple loosestrife
and our first sighting of a pleated inkcap fungus, a slightly unwelcome reminder that autumn is upon us when every part of us clings to summer as we persuade ourselves that the sun is warm, the river beautiful and nothing will ever change.
15th August 2020
Rain? What rain? We’re off to the river to fish for treasure – what’s a little rain!
We did at last manage a brief kick survey under the bridge, in the same place as last year and caught pretty much a similar haul, athough not so many species (mostly bullshead and signal crayfish) but whether that was due to the rain it was impossible to know. What is so wonderful with children that whatever they find is exciting and their enthusiam is undimmed whatever the weather and they never seem to feel the cold or discomfort.
While waiting for the rain to ease a little, we stood close to the bank and noticed 3 or 4 empty crayfish shells floating in the river. The one which the children retrieved had a claw missing and knowing how crayfish fight, we wondered if several had been killed and their dead bodies cleaned out by predators but we have really no idea what caused it.
We checked for Otter spraint both on the bridge piers and on top of the boulders with no luck and so decided to walk to the next site which was at least sheltered a little by the overhanging trees and check the boulders for caddis cases.
Sharp-eyed youngsters soon found lots and the river echoed with their shouts of triumph as they discovered another and another – the sheer numbers of cases is a very positive indication of water quality. Most of the finds seemed to be Glossosomatidae (Saddle-case caddis) with one or two together on top of a boulder, some of which looked empty, whereas there were clusters of half a dozen or more underneath the boulders. It took an eagle-eyed child to find what had eluded us all – a squared tubular case which is a new species, even if we were unable to identify it!
It was a pretty tired party which made its way slowly back across the water meadow but all quietly satisfied that we hadn’t let the rain prevent our expedion!
11th August 2020 / Temp: 28-30 C / Water Level : Low
Even at 10.30ish in the morning it was extremely hot so it was good to walk the shady side of the river and even better to climb down to where the water is completely screened by overhanging trees and is full of riffles and eddies, tumbling over stones and where the air felt deliciously cool.
We spent an enjoyable time poking about the river bed, turning over stones, looking for insects among the riparian vegetation while hoping to spot Kingfishers and Dippers (yes to the first, no to the second). No sign of any insects or much movement in the river, but we did spot a couple of saddle-case caddis, completely out of the water and almost dry. Whilst examining the photograph at home we noticed what looked for all the world like a cooked shrimp on the stone below the saddle-cases.
We have examined it carefully but as we hadn’t focused on the shrimp, the image is not very clear – however we believe it could either be a mayfly larva which was stranded (or died) on the stone when the water receded or perhaps (more excitingly) the invasive species The Killer Shrimp!! Dikerogammarus villosus grow to about 30 mm long and were first recorded in the UK in 2010. It has spread to lakes, canals and rivers in most of the country, breeds prolifically and is thus a danger to native species. We have read that these gammerid types of shrimp have a head and body which are laterally flattened, so dead specimens (like this one) lie on their sides. It could have been swept downstream from the more sluggish stretches of river which it is said to prefer. Note: Excitement over – we submitted the photo to non-native species alerts at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Dr David Aldridge from the University of Cambridge replied with the news that this is not a killer shrimp – we don’t know whether to be pleased or disappointed – the former of course!
Lots of newly opened saracens woundwort and tansy both making vivid splashes of golden yellow along the banks; on one stretch there was a great tangled mass of pink great willowherb, purple creeping thistle, purple loosestrife, himalayan balsam, red and white dead nettle, white angelica with its purple stems, blood red burdock, white trumpets of great bindweed and white flowered hemlock which made a wonderful harmonic splash of colour, shape and height – all the riverside plants of high summer.
Given the amount of possible nectar on display, there were very few butterflies – mostly small and large whites and speckled woods. And apart from the Kingfisher flashing past, and hearing a Green Woodpecker, Magpie, Great Tit and Wren and seeing the usual Crows and Wood Pigeons, as expected at this time of the year, little signs of birdlife.
The most active insect apart from the bees was a Brown Hawker dragonfly, constantly flying, swooping and turning up and down the riverside plants in never ending flight, tirelessly searching for tiny midges to eat.
No signs of Otter under or around the bridge or along the river bank – off wandering no doubt.
2nd August 2020 / Water Level: Low
The afternoon was mixed with sunny intervals and scudding clouds, quite blustery and windy – the kind of day where it was either too hot or too chilly so a short walk along the river bank checking for Otter spraint was a good way to occupy our time. Clambering down to the stony beach is always fun and today was well protected
from the wind. No sign of caddis fly lavae cases or insects hiding in the foliage so after an enjoyable potter, we returned to working our way around the water meadow.
We were extremely pleased to discover this extraordinary looking creature, a female parasitoid wasp (Gasteruption jaculator), one of the two we spotted searching around a slowly decaying, hole ridden tree stump, presumably searching for a solitary wasp’s nest filled with eggs to lay her own eggs to predate on them. The length of the white-tipped ovipositer gives a clear sign of the depth she has to delve to seek out the nest.
Since finding the cauliflower slime mould fungus on this stump, we always check it out to see what beetles, bees, wasps or fungus might be making its home there. Today whilst trying to photograph the wasp, we could see black woolf spiders running around the foot of the trunk hunting for who knows what!
It was fun to find this species of wasp, which is new to us, and made up for not finding any signs of Otter on any of the banks after spotting fresh spraint on one of the piers under the bridge. Few birds – a Raven, Wren, Green Woodpecker, Lesser Black-backed Gulls, Jackdaw, Crow and happily a Dipper but lots of grasshoppers, few butterflies – Peacock, Small Whites
(including one poor bedraggled butterfly rescued from it’s desperate attempts to free itself from a cobweb)a Small Tortoiseshell and a Small Blue. Lots of bees, including loads of buff-tailed and a couple of red-tailed bumble bees and lots of flies everywhere.
Still a reasonable number of plants in flower, the tansy making a colourful display on the riverbank and it was good to see the first gypsywort of the season, along with purple loosestrife, purple teasels, creeping and spear thistles, himalayan balsam together with saracens woundwort just coming into flower, woody nightshade and thick clumps of water forget-me-not all along the rhyne, so thick and lush it was pretty much impossible to spot the water – such a wonderful celebration of summer!
29th July 2020 / Temp: 17 C / Water Level: Med-Low
The Common Field Grasshopper is the one most likely to be seen and our most constant companion on walks through the water meadows and along the river banks from June until late autumn and their leaping and chirring provide one of the special delights of smmer grassland. Such walks are not just thoroughly enjoyable they are also beneficial to good mental and physical health as is borne out by recent Blue Health reports which have found that the benefit of outdoor exercise is enhanced if taken near water. Rivers, sea, lakes etc add an extra dimension and, having spent almost my entire life living close to one or other, I always feel the strong pull of water and the need to be close. Whether beside the Thames, the Bristol Avon, the Sava, the Danube, the Java Sea, the Atlantic Ocean or the Somerset River Frome – each has its own very particular charm – no flying fish or dolphins but brown trout and otters – no lobster or seaweed but crayfish and watercress, Little Egrets instead of White Storks and flashing Kingfishers instead of diving Fulmars – all totally different but all totally captivating.
No luck at any of our four sites – no signs of Otter activity at all, not even pad marks in the mud, which was disappointing but not totally unexpected as Otters are constantly on the move over a long beat of river. No sign of water birds either but a sprinkling of banded demoiselle damselflies, both male and female, eight in all, but only one common blue and one blue-tailed damselflies and a single common darter dragonfly.
It was a similar story with butterflies, we spotted one each of speckled wood, small tortoiseshell, comma, gatekeeper, 3 red admiral but around a dozen small whites. As for birds we heard and saw Goldfinches, Blue Tits, Long-tailed Tits, Swallows, a Buzzard, Jackdaws, Rooks, Crows, Gulls and of course Wood Pigeons but no more than a handful.
And yet… what we did see was our first wild carrot whilst walking across the meadow, complete with a single pink/red flower in the centre and a beautiful yellow and black ichneumon fly (our first of the year and a new species to boot!) perched on the edge, lots of upright hedge parsley, a footballer hoverfly settled on a thistle leaf, a willow redgall sawfly and a willow leaf beetle larva on one of the crack willows, not to mention a flesh fly by the river, which together make an impressive haul of seven new species to add to our list! What a balm it is, to so lose oneself in examining this one single tiny insect, sitting on this particular leaf, on this very plant, feeling the warmth of summer on one’s back, while the worries and cares of the world recede and simply fall away.
And so even the frustration of the camera battery giving out less than half way around the sites mattered not a jot!
13th July 2020 / Temp: 17.5 C / Water Level: Very Low
The final stretch of river for our spasmodic Otter survey for this month. The weather was dull and overcast but the rain held off thank goodness and we checked all the sites without incident. We delighted in seeing the Swallows and House Martins swooping low over the fields and lining up along the telegraph wires – they always look as if they are having such a good time! Good to see a couple of Herons, Mandarin Ducks, hear a Green Woodpecker and we were thrilled to catch our first sighting of a Mistle Thrush in the area. Jackdaws, Rooks and Crows were noisily making their presence known as they spread out in an adjoining field and Wrens, Pied Wagtails in the trees while Gulls and the ubiquitous Wood Pigeons were constantly flying over, so lots of action.
Nothing very much to see on the river, apart from hundreds of shore flies on the mud and stones at the water’s edge; no signs of Otter on the first three sites, but we were rewarded by 1 fresh, 2 recent and 2 old spraint filled with crayfish bones and surrounded by scattered crayfish pearls.
Apart from a noon fly on a cow pat, a good number of bees feeding on the flowers of the greater willowherb, meadowsweet and bramble lining the bank, a few Small White butterflies and a single Red Admiral there seemed little other sign of insect life. So imagine our surprise when walking the path along the hedge on the way back to see first one or two and then dozens of Gatekeeper butterflies!
We have never seen them along the river before and yet there they were in profusion – strange. Interesting to see them totally ignoring the thick clumps of beautiful scentless mayweed and stately teasels both in full bloom to hunt among the leaves of the hedgerow.
We were amused to see on every fence post a cluster of face flies, all sitting perfectly still, looking in the same direction, like sunbathers lined up on the beach.
11th July 2020 / Temp: 17.5 C / Water Level: Low
A quiet stretch of the river with water lilies
A beautiful day, warm, full sunshine, clear blue skies with a mixture of cirrus and fluffy meringue shaped clouds – a perfect summer’s afternoon for standing calf deep in a fast flowing river full of shoals of minnows while brilliant blue banded demoiselle damselflies and bossy brown hawker dragonflies flit around you.
We had moved farther downstream from our last kick survey to check the stretch of water 100 yards or so below the weir. The river does run fast here, swirling through the trailing tresses of the water weed and it was after sweeping the net under the edges of the weed that we were very excited to capture this beautiful Stoneloach in our net.
As these fish are mainly active at night and have superb camouflage they are notoriously difficult to spot, so we must have disturbed its daytime resting place in the stony silt of the river bed. Stoneloaches were listed by the Environment Agency in their fish survey of dead fish following a spillage of slurry from a farm above Frome in the spring of 2016, but they weren’t listed in either of their August 2016 or August 2019 surveys. We have read that Stoneloaches prefer very clean, unpolluted stony streams and they will not tolerate even mildly polluted waters, so their appearance in this stretch of water is the best yardstick we can have for the current state of the river.
American Signal crayfish and Miller’s Thumb
During the search we netted lots of almost transparent freshwater shrimps, tiny signal crayfish, minnows, miller’s thumbs, mayfly nymphs and several larval creatures and worms which we were totally unable to identify and my daughter named ‘Weird Creature 2″!! [update: Mark Wilson from Ispot believes this to be Mayfly lava – ephemera danica]
Apart from the stoneloach, we were most pleased to find yet more caddis fly pupa cases, again clinging to weed covered stones which we believed to be Agapetus fuscipes but which we will have to check to be sure.
Having failed to get a response from our usual bibles – Ispot/Project Noah/Twitter, we approached Paul Kenyon of Fly Fishing Devon for advice after reading his extremely informative article on caddis flies on his website. He was very helpful and wrote:
“I think your pictures are cases of Glossosomatidae (Saddle-case caddis).
As you know the case may contain larva of the genus Agapetus or the genus Glossosoma. Distinguishing between them would involve examining the underside of the case and extracting the larva; there are 3 species in each genus.”
A group of men from the Frome Angling Association arrived as we were sweeping, and we had a long chat. They were a work party clearing the river weed and the overhanging branches and trailing dog rose briars from the bank. They were aware of an Otter holt downriver and said that a fisherman and his son had seen a large Otter swimming upriver through this spot the previous evening which was very good news as we hadn’t found any signs of spraint or pad marks along the beach.
One also mentioned the large fish head and scales which had been found earlier that morning at one of the pegs which he believed to be Otter predation, however we understood that Otters always eat the head first and quite often leave the rest of the fish, but we could of course be mistaken. We were also unable to find the Otter spraint which he thought was close to the kill.
On a more cheerful note, we were extremely pleased to see a male and female Goosander with six or more young. We haven’t seen any Goosanders for years along this stretch of river so it is really exciting if they have returned. A cautionary note from my husband who pointed out that we were pretty close to the nearby lake where we have often seen Goosanders which is just a short flight away – ah well, we live in hope! But we did see our usual Little Egret although no signs of Heron, Coot or Mallard.
Heading home rather sunburnt and a little wearily after a magical afternoon wading in the river, recapturing the joys of childhood days with jam jars and bamboo stick nets, the meadow had still more to offer in the shape of a 14 spot ladybird and a Grey Dagger moth caterpillar – it’s such a haven for wildlife which keeps on showing us new species!14 spot ladybird
We also noticed a few butterflies including a Comma, a Red Admiral, quite a few Small Whites and also saw 3 Red Kites, 2 Buzzards and a Raven hovering over an adjacent field where the farmer was harvesting the hay. A good day.
8th July 2020 / Temp: 18 C / Water Level: Low
Today’s Otter hunt got off to a sparkling start when we spotted 3 fresh, 3 recent and 2 old spraint on one of the bridge piers and another fresh deposit of spraint on a boulder in the river shallows. All of them were accompanied by a good scattering of crayfish pearls and the last one was particularly red.
But the day belongs to the ‘bonking beetle’ season! Red Soldier beetles – their colour so bright, particularly on a dull day, that they always draw the eye and it certainly seemed as if every umbellifer and creeping thistle head was covered with these busy beetles, either crawling over the surface looking for females, flying in and jostling for position or, for the lucky ones, mating. And, despite lowering skies and a brisk wind tossing the trees and flattening the grass, there were also uncountable numbers of bees swarming over the brambles and meadow grasshoppers leaping or flying to safety at our every step.
It was also good to spot a Red Bug feeding among the stems of a large clump of water forget-me-nots and a Common Green Shield bug landing obligingly on my hand because there were few butterflies – only three small whites, two small tortoiseshell and a single red admiral; the damselflies also appear to have stayed in bed, just a couple of banded demoiselles were all that we could spot. Several ladybirds, the most common being the dreaded harlequins, although most interestingly there were 2 harlequins sitting very close to the discarded shell of a ladybird pupa but with no sign of the ladybird itself – foul play at foot?
A few water birds, including a moulting male and a female Mallard, we disturbed two Herons who took off from the water as we arrived and soon disappeared from sight over the meadows, followed soon afterwards by the ghostly white figure of a Little Egret. We could hear a Green Woodpecker in the distance and a very cross Magpie close to. Blackbirds and Wrens made their presence felt by the continuous calls and were soon joined by the chattering of a colony of Rooks and the coos of the Wood Pigeons. A small party of Swallows suddenly appeared over the trees and we watched delighting in their aerobatic displays and swooping, swirling flight. The single Buzzard circling over the trees was silent but intent on his hunt for food, but preferring easy prey like young birds from their nest or small mammals but the Swallows’ fast flight make them too hard to catch.
There were woolf spiders everywhere as usual but few other ground creatures, however we did see a Rove beetle (most likely Philonthus splendens) crawling in and out of the holes in a dried cow pat at top speed, in fact so fast checking every hole it was very difficult to catch sight of him on the surface to grab a photo.
While checking one of the beaches where the river widens, the water level drops and the current is particularly fast, we came across small round caddis pupa cases clinging to a stone. These might well be the Glossosomatidae caddis (Agapetus fuscipes) which are small (3-7 mm) and often present in large numbers on the upper surface of stones in fast flowing sections of rivers.
They are thought to be the oldest (i.e. most primitive in evolutionary terms) type of case-making caddis. The more familiar caddis which make tubular cases from sand, stones or vegetation are thought to be a later evolutionary development.
We cannot be certain as we have never seen them before but they certainly looked much rounder, more igloo like, than the abandoned dried up more tubular caddis cases on a nearby stone.
It would be very welcome if it is Agapetus fuscipes as this is a caddisfly that only seems to occur in unimpacted streams and therefore can be a suitable indicator species for natural conditions. A. fuscipes is very susceptible to organic pollution and the species has decreased in the Netherlands because of human activities which caused organic pollution and hydromorphological degradation.
21st June 2020
A strong breeze and overcast skies but thankfully the rain held off and the sun shone intermittently, so the perfect day for a kick-sampling, especially with such willing helpers!
In the rush to leave the house, we forgot the hand lenses and that, coupled with the uncertain light and the pretty indifferent photographs made identification difficult. However, at least we saw, as with the the sampling last year, lots of freshwater shrimps, water fleas, worms, leeches and blackfly lava.
Both burrowing (above) and swimming mayfly nymphs were found in our trays as well as a damselfly nymph. This latter specimen proved to be challenging until we read that sometimes they are seen without tails after a predator attack so until we discover anything to the contrary, we will go with that explanation.
We were a little disappointed not to find signs of any fish at all, not even minnows, or Signal crayfish, Ramshorn shells or even river mussels all of which we found at last year’s sampling. Due to the coronavirus epidemic we were a month later than last year but this shouldn’t have made a difference to some of these species. However, our disappointment was mitigated by at last identifying a stone clinger, a Yellow May nymph, specimens of which we found last year and always love to see – sadly the photograph really doesn’t do it justice.
We might have been disappointed but luckily our helpers weren’t – they jumped up and down with excitement, shrieked and shouted at every examined bucket sample, and enjoyed the afternoon’s foray immensely. The thorough-going joy of young children is so very heartening, as is their endless enthusiasm for every last shrimp and flea!!
We decided we would try the same spot again in the next couple of weeks and sample the other side of the river as the side we chose is very shallow and often exposed when the water levels are low, but nevertheless we had expected to find much more life in the river here as it was much less turbid that last year’s site.
We saw only two small tortoiseshell butterflies, a single banded demoiselle damselfly (which may have been due to the strong wind and overcast skies) several undistinguished small brown moths and a Green Orb/Cucumber Green Orb spider, the first sighting for us along our stretch of the river.
14th June 2020 / Temp: 20 C / Water Level: Low / 2.30 – 3.15pm
Mixed weather with sunny intervals and when the sun did appear it was very hot, but the river meadow looked very fresh and green after the morning’s drenching and very heavy rain storm. The scarcity of butterflies and damselflies could be because of the weather however we did see 4 Small Tortoiseshell butterflies, a single White-legged damselfly, a handful of Banded Demoiselles and a couple of Beautiful Demoiselles.
Walking along the side of the rhyne we admired the beautiful yellow flags, already beginning to go over. How fleeting the flowering season is, one blink and they are gone, and the chance of seeing them is over for another year; luckily the water-forget-me-not are longer lasting and we will enjoy them for weeks to come.
We spotted a Scarlet Tiger moth resting on a reed in the rhyne, flashing its very dramatic colouring which drew the eye once noticed but almost over-looked in the mass of greenery as was a Pellucid hover fly displaying its distinctive patterned wings while it harvested the nectar from a spray of newly-opened elderflower.
What was so very pleasing was the sighting of fresh Otter spraint, the first on the path beside the river which included some white crayfish pearls and the second on the path along the rhyne, which was chock full of blue crayfish parts, including a complete claw! When we reached the bridge, there were two separate fresh spraint on the pier. We haven’t seen so much Otter spraint, four lots within a hundred yards of each other for 6 months or more.
We had a short chat with the crayfish trapper who was tending his traps for the first time of the year, a catch of 125, which is half the number he can collect during the height of the season. He said that the river had only just warmed sufficiently for the crayfish to emerge and be active enough to trap so this is perhaps another reason the Otter are now back on our stretch. Whist we stood chatting beside a large bed of nettles, we suddenly caught sight of a small group of strange looking creatures which on closer examination were revealed to be ladybird pupa and identified at home as of a 2-spot ladybird.
Sharing the same leaf was a plant bug, one of the vast number of myriad species, which we tentatively identified as possibly plagiognathus arbstorum which are often found on nettles. We spotted more and more – including lots of ladybird lavae, mostly harlequin but a few 7-spot, a wandering pond snail – wandering up a reed, two areas of nettles sporting a writhing mass of black peacock butterfly caterpillars, a small pale netted slug who must have enjoyed the downpour earlier, and a rather jolly Common Red Soldier beetle, triumphantly celebrating reaching the heights of a large welted thistle!
Very, very few birds, a few Blackbirds, a Wren and Jackdaws, we heard a Buzzard but no signs of any water birds at all, but the number of insects enlivened the afternoon’s saunter around the river meadow.
1st June 2020 / Temp: 23C / Water Level: Low / 10.30 – 11.45pm
It is officially the first day of summer after the sunniest May on record and almost unbelievably we awoke to yet another beautiful morning, sunny and warm with a welcome fresh breeze. Today’s magical moment – hearing a Grasshopper Warbler!
We arrived at the river to be greeted by a family of Swallows swooping and skimming across the meadows – such a happy sight – the cows have been in the fields so there will be a good many insects for the Swallows to feed on. It’s always a little shocking to see the shorn fields after haymaking but a great relief to us – wading through knee-high grasses, lumpy tussocks and hidden holes had become increasingly exhausting.
There were no signs of Otter at our first three sites which always puts a bit of a damper on our day but damselflies rising from the plant filled rhyne, a Little Egret at the weir, a pair of Swans and four cygnets, a pair of Mallard and then a female with three young on the river lifted our spirits considerably.
Walking the river bank, watching the damselflies (Banded Demoiselles, Common Blues and Blue-tailed) cheered us up as did the sight of a dozen Mandarin ducks and another 6 or so Mallard, and then, by the time we reached the last site and found 3 fresh spraint and 4 recent, we were pretty pleased and at peace with the world. We also saw a Greenfinch, Great Tit, Heron, Magpie, Green Woodpecker, Pied Wagtail as well as Wrens, Chaffinches, Jackdaws and Crows, but when we then caught sight of a Dipper and on the way back stood beside a tree which was surrounded by scrubby and bushy undergrowth on the edge of the water meadow hardly able to believe our ears – hearing the first Grasshopper Warbler we have heard for nearly 50 years – our cup runneth over!
copyright : Tom Tams
This cracking photograph of a Grasshopper Warbler was taken yesterday and posted on twitter by Tom Tams of Northumberland. He was a good deal luckier than us, his warbler posed like this out in the open and whirred for over half an hour so he was able to take his time and get a collection of brilliant shots.
We rested at the far end of our stretch having found a comfortable grassy hummock among the fading common poppies so we could watch the damselfies (almost exclusively Common Blues here) and examined some tiny brilliantly yellow and black bees, their legs swollen by such huge bags of pollen, it seemed impossible that they would be able to lift off the ground. They were never still and so quite impossible to photograph and so intent were we on the bees, it was some time before the continuing bites on our backs and legs alerted us to the ants nest we were sitting on! When we quickly jumped up we could see the ants scurrying around, four at a time lifting the lavae we had disturbed and carrying off to who knows where!
It was a relief to observe the other, less aggressive insects we spotted on our way back – several Painted Lady and a Speckled Wood butterflies, lots of soldier beetles, both on the brambles and one even on a dried cow pat (evidently they are beloved of Brown Trout so the fish must be feasting as we see so many all along the river meadows). So many spiders webs slung in canopies in the bramble bushes and bees everywhere – mostly honey bees but a few buff-tailed and a scattering of hover flies to make up the numbers.
Taken altogether, it was a very satisfying morning’s scout – how will we cope when the inevitable happens and these long days of hot sun, clear skies and air full of birds, butterflies and damselflies come to an end?
Whit Sunday / 25th May 2020 / Temp: 24C / Water Level: Low / 12.45 – 4pm
Our first sighting of what we think is a Diving beetle (Colmbetes fuscus) which we were surprised to read spend a good deal of their time out of the water.
It was such a lovely peaceful afternoon by the river – hot, full sun, wall to wall blue cloudless sky and a constant gentle breeze through the trees to send dappled sunlight moving across the grasses and massed cow parsley in full bloom. Watching the occasional fish breaking the surface of the river coated with whisps of willow seeds to catch midges or mayflies and the damselflies flitting from plant to plant or chasing the females.
The tiny beetles on the hogweed below (always a feast of insects) are even more problematic. After a good deal of page ruffling, googling and exhaustive searching we think there is a possiility that this might be a bird nest carpet beetle (Anthrenus pimpinellae) or varied carpet beetle but this is possibly subject to change at any time!
Today was a check on two sites (no fresh spraint) and a celebration of insects – particularly the profusion or the first summer explosion of damselflies!
Our precious White-legged damselfly which we always have difficulty in spotting and even more difficulty in photographing…..
and almost the first signs of summer on the river – two mating Banded Demoiselle damselflies…
a female Banded Demoiselle damselfy ….
and finally one of a pair of males, sunning themselves beside the river.
24th May 2020 / Temp: 20C / Water Level: Low / 3.30 pm
A very warm, beautifully sunny, Sunday afternoon on the Whitsun bank holiday weekend during lock-down Coronavirus pandemic when we have been asked to walk locally rather than drive long distances to honey-pot sites, so we shouldn’t have been surprised at the considerable number of people enjoying this stretch of an idyllic trout river. This, together with catching sight of Ernie the bull with his heiffers in the corner of the field made our checking of the Otter sites pretty rapid. Disappointing to find neither spraint nor pad marks. We disturbed a swimmer tucking into his pasta salad on the last beach, he was perfectly amenable and volunteered that he had cycled over from Bristol (not exactly local) and had lived in the Frome area for years and had wanted to revisit old haunts.
It was difficult to see very much of interest but we did note in passing that the water lillies were showing golden yellow so it wouldn’t be very long before they opened. No luck at the bridge pier site where we had seen spraint on our last check nor on the stones at the edge of the river, but we did arrive just at the peak of the Mayfly hatch and stood for ages watching the spinners dance above the water. What a wonderfully mesmerising sight it is!
Moving on to the next site and again no fresh spraint and although there were three old spraints on one of the beaches there were no signs of recent activity.
16th May 2020 / Temp: 16 C / Water Level: Low / 2.40pm
Beautiful day, sunny and warm with a fairly strong breeze and a perfect day to check two of our sites. Very, very pleased to see recent Otter spraint under the bridge, so long since we have seen spraint here, not since the start of the incessant rains of autumn and winter turned the fast flowing river into a torrent, substantially raising the water level and flooded all the beaches – this makes two of our six sites along this stretch with Otter spraint – good news indeed.
We love walking the narrow rhyne which runs parallel to the main river, part of the old canal and sluice system for flooding the fields in winter, as it is always good hunting ground for insects and water plants. The water level is very low here so it is always surprising to see so many mayfly duns rising from the stream, although not nearly so many as from the river, still a good number. We also watched for the first time this year a small swarm of male spinners yo-yoing up and down above the stream, like painted Masai warriors at their jumping initiation into manhood ceremony and probably both for the same reason – to impress any passing females. Seeing the two close together the metamorphosis is more noticeable – the pale almost cream coloured bodies and wings of the duns and the dark bodied, transparent wings of the spinners.
As always, lots of spiders, including this Garden spider – we see quite a number of these but evidently in a recent survey spiders throughout the country are in decline, by 7% in the last 50 years while freshwater insects like dragonflies and caddisflies have inceased.
We have certainly seen more alder flies than ever before this year, one even landed on my hand when we briefly sat and rested, and also saw our first small and barely noticeable Blue-tailed damselfly as well as the flashy Beautiful Demoiselles both male and female.
The Garden spider has rather pretty markings but for colour combinations it is difficult to rival the Common Malachite beetle with its vivid scarlet spots and black and white tail. They are most common in lowland meadows bordering farms like this one and as well as feeding on pollen they predate on small insects. Lots of crane flies as always, including a yellow/orange bodied one but too fast to ID, a sepsid fly tied to a cow parsley stalk by silken threads and a number of Soldier beetles and Grey Sailor beetles (a species previously unknown to us).
Good to see 3 Mandarin ducks, 1 pair of Mallard with 6 ducklings and later on another 4 Mallard and then another pair without offspring. Chaffinches, Whitethroats, Great Tits and Blackbirds were the birds in full song, Jackdaws chattering in an adjoining field, while several Crows and a Heron flew over.
When we think about certain insects declining, this is unfortunately not the case of the harlequin ladybirds which appear to be thriving which given that they predate on the native ladybirds is most unfortunate. Like the American Signal crayfish which has had such a devastating effect on our native White Claw crayfish, the number of foreign species seems to be increasing at a time when our own native flora and fauna are already under threat from climate change and intensive farming, which adds yet another destructive challenge.
It was surprisingly hard work walking across the meadow as there was no discernable path and the grass was very long and tussocky so hidden mole hills of which there are plenty and dips and uneven ground are unseen at this time of the year before haymaking. The honey bee which hitched a ride on a trouser leg must have been feeling pretty dozey or comfortable because it didn’t fall off for ages until eventually brushed off by an extra tall clump of grasses. Honey bees and buff-tailed bees are certainly in the ascendant in the meadows as far as we have noticed.
End of Coronavirus lock-down for one fly fisherman at least – perfectly timed for the mayfly hatch tempting the brown trout in this part of the river to rise. We have never seen these fish leaping almost their entire length out of the water to catch the mayflies as we have watched them farther downstream – over-indulged with insects here perhaps!
12th May 2020
The arrival of summer is heralded for some by the first Swallows, the first Swifts or hearing the first Chiff Chaff but for me summer is a swarm of midges over the water and the mayfly hatch. What can be more pleasurable than sitting on a river bank, in mid to late afternoon in May with the sun warm on your back, watching and trying to keep count as one dun after another rises, rests on the surface while their wings fill and then lift up to fly slowly, somewhat haphazardly above the river and towards the bank onto the vegetation to rest. Some simply don’t make it, unable to rise they remain on the water providing a tasty morsel to a passing brown trout.
Another absolute delight of the afternoon was the number of Banded Demoiselles appearing for the first time on our patch. The males were so dark, their colour verged on indigo – vivid and spectacular – but they were outshone by the females, whose bodies and wings were burnished gold with not a hint of green or brown by the bright sunlight – quite magical! Orange Tip, Brimstone and Peacock butterflies add to the colour and pleasure of the day.
However, the overwhelming good news of this afternoon’s saunter in the sunshine along the river bank was without doubt the discovery at the third of our four sites of 2 fresh and 1 pretty recent Otter spraint, all showing “Frome red” and filled with the crunched shell of an unfortunate signal crayfish, and to dispel any possible doubt – a single crayfish pearl alongside. Frome Reds is the name we give to local otters as, unlike otter spraint in most parts of the country, its spraint is red-brown from a diet almost entirely of signal crayfish rather than the more common black-brown. We haven’t logged spraint here since last September and have felt pretty down-hearted because at one time this site was one of the most prolific; three spraints at one site out of four isn’t overwhelming but perhaps promise of a better summer than we had feared.
Another hopeful sign was sighting a pair of Mallard with 8 ducklings and farther downstream a single female Mallard with 6 ducklings which as we had been so concerned recently about the lack of water birds was very good news. Spotting a Little Egret and a Heron flying over are also augers well.
While Mayflies, Damselflies and Butterflies are the most arresting insects, some bugs and beetles are also very colourful. Good to see a froghopper clinging to a plant on the beach, or a daggerfly perched ready to pounce or the many bumblebees, mining and honey bees or to watch a cranefly lifting from the tall grasses at almost every step, as frequent as grasshoppers in high summer and dung flies in late spring.
We spotted this daggerfly, Empis tessellata feeding on cowparsley. Though it feeds on nectar it is also a predator and catches other insects using its long pointed proboscis to pierce their bodies. Males of E. opaca and E. tessellata present a ‘gift’ to the female, in the form of a dead insect, before mating takes place. Females will not mate with males who do not present a gift.
We feel so fortunate still to be able to walk the river meadows and banks and note and enjoy the wildlife and for sometimes precious hours at a time forget about pandemics and covid19 and coronavirus and children’s jobs in jeopardy and their businesses on the edge of a precipice and simply enjoy the moment another mayfly rises.
7th May 2020
We have been asked by iNaturalist on behalf of Durham University to post the photograph of the Beautiful Demoiselle (below) with details of the site, date, time of day to aid their research into mapping wing colourations of Beautiful Demoiselles across the UK. https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/british-demoiselles
During the 2018 flight season, a study of Demoiselles in Great Britain was launched through iNaturalist to learn more about how wing colouration changes through time and in different locations in these species. So far, researchers have measured the relative size of male Banded Demoiselles’ wingspots and have discovered that there is a change in the average wingspot size over the flight season: males emerging early in the year tend to have smaller wingspots than males that emerge in the peak season.
The published Project Study goes on : “These findings are only the beginning. In the future, we will develop new methods to extract measurements of female wing colour (e.g., how light or dark they are), in order to test whether female traits might respond evolutionarily to mating competition between species. We also plan to use the methods and findings developed in Britain to serve as a case study for expanding analyses to the entire range of banded and beautiful demoiselles.”
4th May 2020 / Temp: 17.5 C / Water Level : Med
A sunny but surprisingly cool afternoon for our exercise walk given the temperature, but the breeze blowing across the river meadow felt quite chilly and proved for the most part impossible to avoid, when we did it was warm. Maybe the strong breeze was the reason for so few birds, butterflies and insects – a Wren, a Swan, 3 Mallard, a Crow, a few Wood Pigeons and a Chaffinch plus two Ravens flying over and as we were leaving a single Tree Creeper. Great excitement near the bridge as a couple out walking spotted what they thought were rare birds and on their description, we began to feel hopeful too, thinking they might be Harlequin ducks – sad to say they were Mandarins, pretty enough but rather frequent sightings along this stretch of the river.
Most of the butterflies we saw were Orange Tips, both male and female, a couple of Brimstones and a Small Tortoiseshell and as to the insects, mostly the usual Common Craneflies, Buff-tail bumblebees, more of the Common Snout hoverflies but we did see the first Harlequin ladybirds of the year – not a welcome sight. To set against our gloom at the Harlequins as we were walking back along the river edge we saw our first damselfly of the year, the brilliantly vivid colours of the Beautiful Demoiselle.
We think it was probably an immature male because although the wings were copper coloured, the body was a dark blue not green in the case of the female. It was so lovely to see the first damselfly, a real harbinger of summer. We also feel sure we spotted a mayfly but it seemed to be blown in the wind faster than normal so we cannot be absolutely sure, particularly as it seems a littl early; that having been said, just about everything has been early this year, the result of the mild, wet autumn and winter no doubt.
We eventually managed to identify what we believe to be an umbellifer longhorn beetle from sight and a very indifferent photograph but the snail, spider and other insects must remain mysteries. Our butterfly binoculars have proved a godsend in their ability to focus on butterflies and insects, however they do highlight in a pretty comprehensive way one of the major drawbacks of our small camera in helping with identification. on the other hand, for two such very amateurish observers, we seem to manage pretty well.
25th April 2020 / Temp: 15 C / Water Level: Med-Low
A walk around the water meadow, checking two of the remaining Otter survey sites during our exercise hour. These fractured checks (we cannot do a full survey in an hour) are not altogether satisfactory but still give an idea if the Otters are out and about in our area. Again no signs of spraint, but two lots of pad marks in the soft mud beneath the footbridge and leading away from the stream.
We did trudge rather as the grasses were almost knee-high in parts which made for slow going, although we could sometimes follow animal tracks (probably badger and roe deer) which made it a good deal easier. Milky, thin high cloud and hazy sunshine and signs of late spring were everywhere, not only in the frequency of plants flowering, the increase in the number of bees but also in the number of different insects appearing.
Green nettle weavils and swollen tummied Green dock beetles clinging to their host plants, Spotted Craneflies, Common Craneflies with their gangly legs, floppy and ungainly amongst the grasses, so many Lesser and Yellow Dungflies flying up at our every step and St Mark’s flies everywhere, a few mating mid-flight.
We spotted two new species for us, an astonishing number of Common Snout Hoverfly (above) catching the eye with their striking orange-red coloured bodies almost completely hidden when at rest and an Alderfly (below) with its black lacey-veined wings looking for all the world like ornate leaded glass windows.
So many black spiders skittering along the ground, in amonst the tussocks and running into the dried mud and cracked crevices around the beach, the only reconizeable ones the female Woolf spiders with their noticeable egg sac, and possibly common crab spiders, as well as garden spiders, the webs slung across the bushes.
Lots of summer flowers beginning to come into bloom, the scattered plants of common field speedwell sprinkled amongst the grass, cow parsley, greater stitchwort, buttercups, red campion, cream and purple comfrey, white and red deadnettles, groundsel, herb bennet, hop trefoil, welted thistle and ladies smock as well as wild garlic all now in flower and then suddenly we spotted a lovely Large Red Damselfly fly up from the river and over the field, our first damselfly of the year, a real promise of summer. Several butterflies – Brimstones, Orange Tips (male and female), Peacocks and one Small Tortoiseshell (although we saw several clusters of their writhing hydra-like caterpillars in the nettle beds), and one Common Blue, another welcome sign of summer on its way.
Only one pair of Mallard in the river but a pair of Swans flew over, and we put up a Mandarin duck. A few songbirds – Blackbirds, Chaffinches, Wrens and a Whitethroat, Jackdaws and Crows flying over, three Buzzards circling above the trees, we could hear a Green Woodpecker drumming across the meadow and a Raven croaking in the distance but no more – maybe the birds were as tired and dozey in the afternoon sun as we were!
21st April 2020 / Temp: 11 C / Water Level: Med – Low
A bright and sunny morning with a north-easterly breeze, thankfully less strong than yesterday, so walking the Otter sites was a most enjoyable way of using our allotted exercise hour. The first two sites were devoid of any evidence of Otter, the only sign of life a Pied Wagtail which shot out of nowhere and landed on the electric fence close by the bridge, tail flicking in contempt at my lumbering progress. The thick beds of crosswort caught the eye, the new small yellow flowers glowing from the shade of the hedge and the great expanse of wild garlic under the trees and along the bank were in full starred bloom, so beautiful particularly as their sometimes overpowering scent seemingly largely absent we were glad to find.
Finding one recent spraint among the roedeer slots on the beach was a great relief, although paltry compared to the same month in the two previous years, as we hadn’t found spraint on this site since October we were happy to see any at all. We set up 6 Mandarin Duck and 4 Mallard so at least there were some water birds but no sign of Goosander, Heron, Little Egret or Cormorant and even the pair of Swans which we see at every visit were unaccountably missing.
Our arrival on the beach at the junction of the two rivers alarmed a Kingfisher who gave a shrill warning peep as he shot downriver. It was, as ever, the most productive area for Otter signs, 1 fresh spraint, 2 recent and a scattering of signal crayfish pearls – the first since the autumn. Here we sat on a ledge half way up the bank and rested, mesmerised by watching the current carrying bubbles downstream, by the sun’s reflections on the water sending flickering lights across the tall rushes, cow parsley and garlic mustard crowding onto the beach. Here also were the loveliest sounds of late spring – Chiff Chaffs, Whitethroats and Yellowhammers singing, rippling water and the hum of Buff-tail bumblebees and the sights – St Mark’s flies, Honey bees, a dandelion filled with three tiny 16-spot ladybirds, cow parsley, red campion, buttercups, pear and apple blossom and white comfrey all newly opened.
With a final flourish and fanfare of trumpets to our morning – three Swallows appeared, swooping and swerving around at high speed above our heads, sun on their backs, the unseasonally strong warmth bringing out lots of insects – what more delight could they hope to find after flying half way around the world?
20th April 2020 / Temp: 11.5 C / Water Level: Med-Low
A brilliantly sunny morning, cloudless blue skies but a very strong and cold northerly wind – the sun is summer, the wind is winter! Disappointing not to find any signs of Otter at any of the four sites we walked to on our exercise hour. Six months have now passed since we have seen regular spraint and when we found a fresh one on our last visit, we hoped this was to be the first of many. Unfortunately this now doesn’t appear to be the case.
Lack of Otter signs appears to be matched by the fall in the number of water birds and certainly the number of birds and insects were also less than our last visit, possibly due to the cold wind or even the time of day. However we did see and hear Chaffinches, Wrens, Great Tits and Blue Tits, Blackbirds, a couple of Whitethroats and Chiff Chaffs, a wheeling Buzzard and Red Kite but only a single Mallard, no sign of Swans, Cormorants, Little Egrets, Herons, Mandarin Ducks, Coots which had seemed permanent residents.
It wasn’t all gloom and doom, lots of spiders webs, lots of midges and gnats both above the water and above the banks, many of them caught in the webs most of which appear to be cironomids, the non-biting midge, the lavae of which we usually find in our occasional kick-sweep surveys of the river, so it was fun to see them close to. We remember the Rossendale Fairies photograph posted in a local northern newspaper showing a particular shot of these midges and claiming they were fairies!
Orange tips (m&f) and a single Peacock the only butterflies but quite a number of mining bees, we saw both Ashy and Tawny as well as a Beefly and a few Honey bees, Hover flies and St Mark’s flies. A phenomenon remarked on by fishermen was very noticeable today, the number of St Mark’s flies being blown onto the river; we didn’t see even one being taken by a fish which we found surprising. Meadow foxtails and Buttercups were the only new plants flowering, there were an increasing number of the delicate Lady smock, Red campion and Cow parsley and still a clump of Marsh marigolds and well as Lesser celandines still hanging on. Overall we were glad to hurry back to get out of the wind and rest up!
11th April 2020 / Temp: 19 C / Water Level: Falling
Another beautiful spring morning and we took the opportunity of our exercise allowance to check out just one of our Otter sites where we were pleased to see two sets of Otter pad marks, one set in a soft muddy beach of the river and the other in the overflow tunnel leading down from the rill. No signs of spraint at either site and none on the log where we had found spraint on a previous visit. It’s frustrating – we can tell there are Otters about, but they seem always to be passing through and not stopping to fish and eat even though the Signal crayfish (their favourite food locally) should be pretty active by now as the river water temperature is rising.
The warm sunny weather of the past week when temperatures are closer to summer than spring has encouraged plants to flower so not only was the meadow covered in splashes of golden dandelions to add to the lesser celandines but the beautiful pale lilac lady’s smock, garlic mustard, birds eye and field speedwell, daisies, chickweed, red and white dead-nettle but also the cow parsley and red campion were just starting to open and the hedges were alight with young leaves and blackthorn blossom.
These two arum lillies are on a steeply sloping ivy covered bank where the plants are growing in profusion. Wild foragers would be delighted with the good spread of young nettles, chives and wild garlic scattered around the meadow, but it needs to be quick, as they are just on the point of flowering. If you are foraging you may be tempted by today’s FT Weekend delicious looking recipe by Rowley Leigh for Nettle Fettuccine with scallops and lemon https://www.ft.com/content/21f475d6-7861-11ea-af44-daa3def9ae03
Well worth reading this witty account of Rowley instructing his photographer in the art of home made fettucine – I will never cook scallops again without hearing “Now, Andy, Now” 2 seconds after putting them in the pan!
Lots of insects now emerging (and mating) as with the green dock beetle pictured here, the much smaller male mounted on the larger female. The rather beguiling primrose coloured grass spider below was dangling from a grass, dozens and dozens of small black spiders scurrying everywhere, uncountable numbers of dung flies flying up at every step almost, both Lesser and Yellow dung flies (even though we couldn’t see any dung and the cows hadn’t been in the meadow all winter given the relentless rain making their pasture a quagmire).
Midges by the ocean full! Drone flies, Hover flies, fat bumblebees and also butterflies now appearing in greater numbers at least 8 Peacock, half a dozen or so Orange Tip, a single Comma, several Brimstones, one Small White and two Small Tortoiseshell.
The surprise was seeing St Mark’s flies gathering above the small beach where the narrow rill widens out into a shallow pool. We perched on the bank and rested and watched them swirling just above our heads. At least two weeks early but no doubt the unseasonably high temperatures of the past few days tempted them out. As always, sitting still, even for 5 minutes or so meant we saw and heard more – a newly arrived migrant Whitethroat singing (a first sighting for us here) a Great Spotted Woodpecker drumming, and Rooks making their usual racket from a rookery close by.
Returning to the river and clambering down the bank to check for spraint, we suddenly spotted a slug, quietly feeding
on a fat earth worm, not a practice we were familiar with.
Further investigation when we returned home revealed that slugs being the ultimate scavengers will feed on dead snails, slugs and earth worms as well as fungi but evidently there is a species called a shell-slug Testacella, which lives underground, is rarely seen, and lives entirely on live worms and has a distinctive small ear-shaped external shell on its rear end. My extremely scanty knowledge of slugs makes me think this looks more likely to be a Tawny slug by its markings, but as it kept his head and tail well hidden so we will never know for sure.
On the same dry sandy bank we also noticed 5 or 6 small volcanos which we always associate with Tawny mining bees, although we didn’t notice any of them flying around.
We spotted a reasonable haul of birds – as well as the Whitethroat and Woodpecker, we saw and heard lots of Wrens, Great Tits, Blue Tits, Chaffinches, Blackbirds and Robins singing, displaying and searching for nesting material; we put up a Little Egret, saw a Swan and several Mallard along the river and heard a distant Raven and Magpie and of course saw lots of ubiquitous Wood pigeons, Pheasants and Gulls everywhere.
Dipper photographs / copyright John Hansford
We were also so pleased to catch a glimpse of a sole Dipper (no sign of its mate but our first sighting of Dippers this year). John Hansford has captured these superb photographs of a Dipper showing off its brilliant white bib against its chocolate brown body.
A beautiful spring morning with the warmth of summer, a welcome balm against the horrors of coronavirus news. We count ourselves very fortunate to be able to enjoy this all too brief respite.
30th March 2020 / Temp: 8 C / Water Level: Medium – falling
A brief exercise-allowance walk to check one of our Otter sites, and sad to say it was bereft of spraint or any signs pf Otter at all. The weather wasn’t welcoming, the wind cold, the sky overcast and even a sprinkling of icy rain but we trudged along, checking anyway. Two Canada Geese were occupying the prime spot near the bridge leaving their droppings liberally spread all over the grass, we disturbed four Mallard, two male, two female, all of whom left their footprints in the muddy area around the cattle trough. No sign of the Little Egret or the Heron or Cormorants, we did however spot the White Pheasant, hunkered down out of the wind but skittering off when we came too close. It was cheering to see it is surviving, still on the run from the nearby Pheasant Shoot.
The vivid splash of several golden yellow marsh marigold plants were a very welcome sight of colour in what was a pretty drab scene, white and red deadnettle, dandelions and daisies the only other flowers to show themselves but the blackthorn blossom made a brave show, looking so delicate and fragile in the rain.
Lots of small birds flitting and singing – a Pied Wagtail, Wrens, Blue Tits, Robins, a Chiff-Chaff, Blackbirds, a Song Thrush and of course the inevitable Crow. Surprisingly perhaps given the cold wind we also saw a Buff-tailed Bumblebee and Yellow Dungfly – not the sort of weather to see them usually.
A fairly sizeable tree trunk was slewed across and balanced precariously on the edge of the weir – we have seen more fallen trees in the river this winter than we can ever remember seeing in previous years, a striking reminder of the noticeably high winds of this year’s storms.
25th March 2020 / Temp: 16 C
There is something very calming about walking beside a river, the water looks gin clear and sparkles as it ripples over unseen stones, the sound is soothing, there is nothing to offend the eye and we can feel ourselves beginning to unwind, forget the looming threat of Coronavirus for a little while, put down the burden of anxiety over children’s jobs and grandchildren’s home schooling, soak up the quiet beauty and relax.
It helps if a Mute Swan drifts by, Persil white, and 4 or 5 Mallard take off with a noisy clatter and many squawks, followed soon after by 2 quieter Mandarin Ducks. If you can hear Blackbirds and Chiff Chaffs, Wrens and Robins, see at least 5 Small Tortoiseshell butterflies, 2 Brimstones and 2 Peacocks, you feel transported into a different, more innocent world. It is delightful if you catch sight of a small brown head in the water which, before you can quite absorb what you have seen, dives under water and disappears and you stand, gazing at the swirl of ripples and wonder… could it have been an Otter? When you then stand, looking at the river to see if something surfaces, but nothing does and you wonder…. was it?
And then when you cross the meadow to the Mells River rill and begin walking its line and put up a Snipe, not once, but twice, and if this if the first time you have seen the wader for nearly two years you feel pleased to be here on this day at this time when wildlife offers such gifts.
The Otter spraint we spotted on a log by the rill contained the usual fragments of fish bones but also what looked like the carcass of a water beetle with fringed back legs but impossible to identify without much closer scutiny with a hand lens which we didn’t have with us.
[Further research revealed that, disappointingly, it was more likely to be a uropod, part of the tail fan, of a signal crayfish. We should have spotted it earlier, just about every spraint we find is chock full of crayfish remains – they never seem to eat anything else!!]
Every mole hill seemed to have small dusty black spiders running all over them and one had what looked like a dozen or so scattered white slugs’ eggs – possibly the remains of a ground beetle’s lunch.
Update: This photograph of the spores of a cauliflower slime mould has been added to Ispot collection to complete the photographic stages in its life cycle.
Now in the Slime Collection here https://www.ispotnature.org/communities/uk-and-ireland/view/project/777371/-the-slime-mould-collection-/observations-gallery
Which lead us to our final conundrum of the afternoon – a cluster of what looked a brown ball of fluffy cobweb! Possibly lichen, possibly fungus – we will ponder!
27th March 2020 : Well, we have to thank Chris Brooks at Ispot for identifying this fungus, which we do, most heartily! He believes it to be the remaining brown spore mass of an old Slime Mould (Reticularia lycoperdon) commonly called a Cauliflower Slime Mould. He goes on to write : “Reticularia lycoperdon is usually seen as a whitish blob on wood but within is a brown spore mass. This is revealed once the outer dries and cracks.” Interestingly, I had taken a photograph of a whitish blob on the other side of the tree, which didn’t look as if it had any connection – here :
How exciting – how weird and wonderful the natural world is!
24th March 2020 / Temp: 11 C – 13 C / Water Level: Medium – falling
Cool breeze but sunny and although we were most disappointed not to see any signs of Otter along the whole stretch of our four survey sites – apart from one set of pad marks – we spent an enjoyable morning chasing bees among the red deadnettle and common field speedwel – early bumblebees, buff-tailed bumblebees, honey bees, common drone flies and beeflies all seen without getting a decent photograph of any of them. Ditto the butterflies – Peacock, Small Tortoiseshell, Brimstone and Green Veined White – all were alusive and far too lively, barely settling for a moment before flitting off or, in the case of the bumblebees, disappearing into the long grass. How heartening to see so many insects, a good sign of spring.
We did capture a reasonably clear photograph of the Pied Shieldbug – good enough at least to identify a new species for us, and the first 7 spot ladybird of the season so all was not in vain.
We set up the usual handful of Mallard at two of the sites and 2 Little Egret and 2 Mandarin ducks, but there was very little other birds around – the usual Jackdaws and Rooks among the bleached stubble, we heard a Chiff Chaff, a lovely herald of spring, Chaffinches, Blackbirds, Wrens, Robins, Blue Tits, Great Tits and 3 Buzzards circling and circling over the stand of trees.
The large beds of ramsons were in full leaf and several had fat buds about the burst open, we spotted wild chives, lots of lesser celandine and dog’s mercury, dandelions, white deadnettle, bittercress and blackthorn blossom as well as the first flowering cow parsley of the year.
Walking home along the top track we noticed on the full-sized Ash tree a line of King Alfred’s cakes starting from the first branch and running up the entire length of the trunk! We had never seen this phenomenon before, usually we saw them in clusters, or a short line, never up the whole tree.
Always something new to notice – even on trees we had passed dozens and dozens of times before. Badger diggings and rootlings everywhere alongside their usual well-beaten pathway and both Roe Deer and Muntjac tracks across two of the beaches as well of course the usual dogs and water bird tracks.
It was so good to walk alongside the river checking the beaches, stones and logs for Otter spraint, ambling across the water meadows, feeling the warm sun on our backs and noticing all the many signs of new growth, a blessed few hours during which we were able to forget all about viruses and lock-downs and food shortages and enjoy another world.
18th March 2020 / Temp: 12.5 C
The wettest autumn and winter on record have made river walks untenable, the fields were often flooded and the ground was always a muddy, sludgy quagmire, so although the sky was overcast with heavy cloud and the stiff breeze pretty chilly, we were relieved to have a dry day to explore.
We were both relieved and delighted when we spotted Otter spraint on a tree root close to the river – our first sighting since September – a completely unprecedentedly long hiatus in Otter activity. It may have been the high water level and fast current which was the cause but we believe darker plots may have been at work, other enthusiasts bribing the Otters with fish, coaxing and inveigling them to swim upstream and abandon our stretch for the winter – and yes Simon King – we do mean you!! We had chatted to the tree surgeons at work on the trees around the telegraph poles one of whom lived close to the naturalist and photographer’s house on the other side of Frome where he said Simon King (who fed them) saw Otters frequently. We can only hope that come the warmer weather and the Signal Crayfish becoming more active, the Otters might bore of fish and move downstream for more tasty fare.
The water level had fallen considerably which was a good sign although there was little water bird activity on the river – one Mallard by the weir and two Mallard half a mile downriver, two Cormorants flew over. If there were almost no water birds, there were plenty of other birds – we heard only the second Chiff Chaff of the season along with seeing lots of noisy Robins declaring their territory, Wrens and of course Crows and Wood Pigeons and our beloved Jackdaws as well as Blue Tits and Blackbirds in full voice.
The Grey Willow catkins were well-formed but still green but there were a sprinkling of wild flowers in bloom, both white and red deadnettle, dandelion, common speedwell, dog’s mercury, common chickweed, lesser celandine, hairy bittercress and the partially hidden clumps of beautiful white sweet violets. Despite the grey skies and chill wind, spring has definitely arrived!
22nd February 2020
Last autumn we were in correspondence with the Somerset Environment Agency with regard to the attempted fish survey they carried out in August 2019 which was aborted due to the fallen trees and the turbidity of the water. Various reasons were discussed as to the cause of the turbity, American Signal crayfish eroding the banks when excavating dens, manure from cattle excreting into the river and run off from fields and water meadows.
We mentioned our observation of reasonably clear, self-cleaning water above the bridge, and murkier, turbid water below. We had not been aware at that time that Staplemead Creamery had straightened the course of the river from Great Bridge to their factory, reinforced their bank with concrete and moved the weir (see maps below).
2017 digital map showing the line of the river after the redirection/straightening
1884 OS Map showing the original meander of the River Frome
As Richard Marston writes in his research paper on river behaviour:
Human-induced environmental changes (e.g. in-channel and landscape modifications by protective measures, agriculture, and urbanization on or around floodplain landscapes) and climate change alter flow regime, floodplain-erodibility characteristics, and sediment-transport rates, and thus can significantly affect the patterns of channel evolution and floodplain vegetation patterns and processes.
Moreover, the alterations in river–floodplain system functioning can lead to a decrease in hydrologic connectivity and a degradation of water quality, which in turn lead to a decline in the abundance and diversity of riparian and riverine habitats.
As is often the case, there may not just one cause but a multiplicity of causes which lead to the degradation of water quality and it is worth considering whether the straightening of the river, tarmacing large car parks and paths around the buildings together with concreting the banks and the subsequent increase of run off has had a detrimental effect on the water quality of the river.
17th February 2020
River Insects and Lichens bucking the trend of wildlife losses
Among all the articles despairing the continuing loss of wildlife, a good news story! Scientist believe that the increase in these insects and lichen could be caused by cleaning the rivers and reducing air pollution. Whatever the reason, we have noticed lichens and mosses thriving on the trees along the river bank and delighted in the numbers of dragonflies, damselfies and mayflies we see during the warmer summer months along our stretch of the river.
5th February 2020 / Temp: 6.5 C / Water Level: Med. High (falling)
The above photograph shows the line of the old trail drain which formed part of the catchworks which is almost completely obscured by the dead plants. From a canal which ran through the farmyard at the top of the slope, water flowed through a system of sluices and down over the water meadows to ensure the ground didn’t freeze during winter. The farmer said that the canal had long since been filled in and the lines of hatches and ditches had been ploughed over so only the dead straight drain running paralel to the river remains. In high summer this is a wonderful sight as the banks are filled with flowers and the flowers are filled with dragonflies, damselflies and butterflies.
The trail drain supports just winter dried plants at the moment but the bright warm sunshine has at least attracted clouds of winter gnats and midges along the entire length of the stream and today we disturbed a couple of dozen Mallard who no doubt welcomed the quieter stretches of the drain rather than the more turbulent river, although sadly they hadn’t shared the space with any Otters. More details about the history of the catchworks can be seen at : https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/conserving-historic-water-meadows/heag176-conserving-water-meadows/
Walking along to the next beach we disturbed about six Mandarin Ducks, a few more Mallard but not the two Swans, who studiously ignored us, refusing to get up from their comfortable positions on the bank. Lots of Badger snuffle holes, enthusiastic diggings, a well defined smeuse through the hedge and a good many mole hills; from the bare winter trees Robins, Wrens, Blackbirds and Great Tits were in fine song, flitting amongst the yellow hazel catkins.
Thank goodness on our very last site we found twenty plus Otter pad marks across the beach, some signs of Otter presence if not the spraint we had hoped for. This beach is always sheltered and by now the sun was surprisingly very warm and we regretted not bringing coffee so we could sit in the peace and quiet of the river bank and bask a little!
copyright: David Tipling
Scanning the fields in the hope of Heron or Little Egret before turning back, we suddenly caught sight of a Brown Hare racing along close to the hedge. We hadn’t gone far across the field away from the first hare when we saw two more – golden brown in the bright sunlight, boxing and sparring until they saw us when the female crouched down so low we could barely see her and the male stood guard. However, when we began to walk towards them, the male also flattened himself – it was extraordinary how difficult they were to see and how they remained perfectly still until we were quite close when first the female raced off to the fence and soon after the male raced to the gate whereupon the female raced along the fence to join him. A wonderful sight so early in the year.
We watched the Jackdaws and Rooks constantly moving from field to field, continually chattering and calling to each other.
By the time we reached the track the sun was even hotter and it felt so springlike that we weren’t surprised to see our first forager bees of the year, all honey bees from the hives near the farmhouse, from where we could hear the constant buzz. We had already seen snowdrops, red deadnettles and yellow hazel catkins in flower, and the bright blue perriwinkles climbing the lichen encrusted wall was yet another signal that spring must surely be just around the next corner – we will ignore the doomsters who warn of cold, icy, snowy weather yet to come.
4th February 2020 / Temp: 7 C / Water Level: Med. High (falling)
Bright, clear, sunny morning with blue skies and a chill but envigorating wind so it was a good day to walk along the river checking for Otter spraint. Again we were disappointed as we saw no signs of Otter at all, no spraint but also no pad marks either. Since beginning the Otter survey we have never before had such a dry spell of no spraint. This autumn and winter has been so wet and the river continuously high which may very well account for their absence but it is concerning nevertheless – seeing the glossy sticky buds was a cheerful reminder that winter maybe loosening its grip but hardly compensation for lack of Otter, despite, as always, giving into the temptation since childhood of pinching the bud gently between two fingers to check its level of stickiness – satisfyingly toffee apple tackiness!
The birds did their best to compensate for the lack of animal activity and were plentiful and in good voice which raised our spirits. All along the river we could hear them singing as they flitted about the trees, Blue Tits, Great tits, Chaffinches, Wrens, Robins, Blackbirds, a Magpie, a Tree Creeper, Wood Pigeons and Pheasant and also a Kestrel, 2 Buzzards, a Raven, a Green Woodpecker, 2 Heron, 2 Cormorants, Crows, a Little Egret a large flock of forty or more Black Headed Gulls and 5 Herring Gulls – very many more birds that we have heard and seen for a long time.
Unfortunately we also saw two dead Mallard, both well eaten so impossible to see what bird or animal killed them. We didn’t see any live Mallard, in fact no ducks at all and the pair of Swans haven’t reappeared so we think they are probably sticking to the nearby lake for the winter.
We saw Snowdrops, Lesser Celandine, Dog’s Mercury in flower and Groundsel, Chickweed and pussy willows all showing colour so a few more days of sunshine should see early signs of spring. Innumerable numbers of fresh mole hills, worm casts, two female Yellow Dung flies and a solitary Lesser Dung fly as well as white midges and winter gnats were all lured out by the sunshine, so wildlife also seems to be on the move quite early. Can we hope for an early spring?
9th January 2020 / Temp: 10.5 C / Water Level: High
Sunshine and blue skies meant it was imperative for us to make a dash to the river! How starved we are of light in winter but this winter with its lowering clouds and leaden skies has been particularly hard to endure; it has been difficult to keep in good spirits when day after day we pull back the curtains to confront a day of yet more rain.
Goldcrest in Summer – copyright John Hansford
Today was a very welcome change and we set off in good spirits despite wading through the thick quagmire of mud spread out for some distance in front of the five-barred gate. But how could we complain when close by we caught sight of our first Goldcrest in this area, hobnobbing with several Blue Tits – what attractive little birds they are! A shy Wren as usual flying around stream under the bridge, a nearby Robin giving good song and a Blackbird’s warning call from the hedge – lots of action.
The river water was of course yet again very high, swirling brown and fast through the sunlit strawlike reeds, but we did see a Coot which was a welcome sight and two Cormorants sitting in judgement on the meadow before them, still and grave high up in a tree, one of them a juvenile. So maybe we might begin to see the water birds returning. A local ornithologist reported Mandarin, Goosander, Little Egrets and Mallard aplenty on the nearby lake so no doubt our usual birds are all wintering there.
Two Buzzards were swirling in the clear air above, Jackdaws, Crows, Magpies and Blackheaded Gulls and the lovely sound of a Green Woodpecker eachoing across the fields.
All the usual suspects as we walked along beside the river – clouds of winter gnats, lots of orange fungus on the cowpats, black spiders dashing around among the grasses, mole hills and worm casts, a sprinkling of white dead nettle in flower, a few white berries still clinging to the snowberry bushes and almost every twig and branch coated with mosses and lichen. We turn a twig and spot a single perfect Variable Oysterling fungus, we nearly crush a scattering of Candlesnuff fungus in a line beside a black mud-streaked log.
We crunched across the beach, littered with water smooth stones and fragments of red brick, duck mussel shells, the odd crayfish claws bright red in the sun, crushed land snail shells and what looked like white clam shells, possibly Asian clams which are said to be invading UK waterways.
Along a branch of our loved old Willow, growing amongst the moss, was the lichen below which we initially thought was Common Green Sheild lichen but on closer examination might well have been Punctelia subrudecta (a lichen recently identified for us by Ispot) covered in the white dots that later develop into soralia, the common reproductive structures of lichens.
No Otter signs yet again. We do hope that when the water level drops and the river is more calm we may see spraint, worryingly scarce now that an unprecedented three months have passed since we have seen any, but in another three months who knows – the whole scene will have changed, longer days, more sunshine, new growth and then…..
30th December 2019 / Temp: 11 C / Water Level: High
The sun was shining! For the first time in what seems months we felt warm sun on our backs as we walked along, pink clouds sailed overhead, the bright light turned the stubble gold, and long, long shadows stretched almost the length of the field. Wonderful – it felt good to be alive!
The main beach on this stretch of the river was completely under water but one of the others still had a margin of silt where we saw 20 plus pad marks of an otter criss-crossing and exploring the beach although he didn’t leave any spraint; there was no spraint near the only other signs of otter pad marks by the weir. On the final beach no Otter tracks but clear prints of what looked like Muntjak given their shape and size.
The only water birds were the two resident Swans and a Cormorant – no Mallard, Heron or Little Egret to be seen. There was a shoot in a nearby field and the guns were blasting away which may have discouraged the birdlife but given the dearth of water birds at yesterday’s sites, probably not; it could simply be that although the margins of the river were calm, the main current was so fast and turbulant they had flown off to quieter reaches of the river.
No sign of our Dippers or Kingfishers on the far stretch, however, we saw two Buzzards, a Cormorant, Pheasant, Wren, Blackbird, Chaffinch, swirling restless flocks of Jackdaws and Rooks as well as 100+ Herring and Lesser-Black-backed gulls in the field. We also spotted the remains of a Pheasant – just a splash of feathers below a tree, no bird just wing parts so probably a fox kill – they tend to eat the gut and breast.
This was one of several trees which have fallen since our last visit, no doubt brought down by the recentstorms, and the second to fall over the river making a good solid land bridge for lots of small creatures to explore new territory.
In spite of so little Otter action, we were very reluctant to leave the river as it felt so wonderful to amble along in the bright sunshine, and decided to walk the boundary of the main meadow to check for possible fungi.
We saw lots of moss skirting the trunks of the hawthorn trees along the hedgerow, nearly every branch and twig of which were covered in golden yellow, green and grey lichen and too many animal runs through gaps in the hedge to count. In the corner of the field we came across the main family of Badger setts, again too many to count, we gave up at ten! By the freshly cleared out earth outside every sett it appeared that the Badgers were also beguiled by the warm sun and had already set to to spring clean their burrows.
Suddenly, to our delight, a flash of movement from the middle of the field which was bathed in sunlight – our usual Brown Hare appeared from his hiding place amongst the grass clumps and tufts and took flight across the field and up the hill towards the wood, running between us as we were some distance apart. Brown Hares are said to reach speeds of 45 mph when evading predators, well it didn’t look quite that fast but still extraordinarily fast. It must be spring!
29th December 2019 / Temp: 8 C / Water Level: High
A horribly cold wind and heavy cloud confirmed the weather forecast – temperature 8 C but feels like 5 and so it did, a drab winter scene of bare trees and sullen skies the very occasional brief periods of pale wintry sun not enough to warm chilled faces and backs so we plodded round our survey sites with a pretty jaundiced eye. However the dull day was enlivened by a gleam of sunlight highlighting a small pile of a wood mouse’s last feast, half hidden in the hedge. Peering through the thorny branches we could just make out the holes in the hawthorn seeds where the mice have nibbled through to reach the kernels; the sheer number of abanded seeds shows a hearty high vitamen meal to fend off the winter chill.
When we reached the moss covered dressed stones of footings of an old building, we spotted signs of a not quite so cuddly rodent – a Brown Rat’s den hole with its distinctive trail of excavated earth running from the entrance. We presume that, like the badger, the rat must still be inside as they are both mostly nocturnal and there are no tracks leading from the entrance; it could also be that they both kick out more earth to cover their tracks.
Good to see a sprinkling of fungi under the hedges in the grass and high up in the trees.
We think these little brown jobbies might be Deceiver fungus, their bright tan caps offering a splash of colour.
One of the boughs of a hawthorn tree was home to several plum colored Jelly Ear fungus which was rather surprising as the tree was so smothered in ivy, it was difficult to see how anything managed to find enough space to grow.
Our favourite large Willow tree growing on the large gravel beech has acquired what looks like a pink fungus growing on the lichen on on of its boughs. This could be the lichenicolous fungus Illosporiopsis christiansenii which grows on Physcia tenella and occasionally on Xanthoria parietina but if anyone has a stronger contender, we would love to hear from you.
Interesting to find on one of the moss covered boughs of the same tree an abandoned crayfish claw, possible dropped by a Heron who are known to eat crayfish.
Finally a fungi which we believe to be the rather lovely Winter Twiglet which always looks like a delicious caramel fudge, its gills so well defined, particularly when like in this photograph when it is curled up sufficiently to display them.
We did hear and see a fair few birds – Chaffinches, Wrens, Blackbirds, parties of Tits, mostly Long-tailed tits and Blue tits, Robins, Wood Pigeons and Pheasants of course and large flocks of Jackdaws and Rooks as well as a group of at least 60 plus Black Headed Gulls. A pair of Buzzards circled over the trees, a Cormorant flew over and we heard a Green Woodpecker laughing and yaffling so there was some action despite the cold and the time of day.
It was good to see some purple male Alder catkins adding a splash of colour. It always astonishes us how early these catkins form and how long it takes before they reach full length in the spring. A couple of these catkins had scarlet tips but we have been unable to find out why.
15th December 2019 / Temp: 7.5 C / Water Level: Very High
A brutally cold day, an incessant north-westerly wind, blustery and gusting to such intensity we had difficulty keeping our balance. The cold combined with flurries of icy rain tossed in our faces made for an invigorating walk, struggling along we assured each other that it was really energising! The truth is we wanted to escape from election fever and the day and the river reflected our mood.
The river was fast and furious, a roiling boiling current, forming swirls and whirlpools as it raced along, the backwash from the tumbling weir rolling a sizeable tree trunk over and over as if it was a light branch, simply by the sheer force of the water.
It was the highest level we had ever seen, which seems to be the constant refrain this autumn and early winter – whenever we think the river is at its height, it becomes higher, although not surprising given so much rain.
The beach was reduced to a few feet, all the rest being under water, where so many small empty duck mussel shells lay scattered in groups of four or five close together across the crushed shells and grainy silt.
In a quiet mossy haven, among old stone slabs and the remains of a stone wall, well protected by a line of trees, was a small clump of fungus, possibly Beige Fibrecap, athough the species is unknown to us so we can’t be certain. Their warm toffee coloured flesh and cream gills were a welcome sight, brightening the wintry day.
Given the inhospitable weather we were unsurprised to see or hear so few birds, apart from hearing Blackbirds and Chaffinches, the only ones we saw were Robins, Buzzards, Crows and Wood Pigeons with no sign of our Little Egret. But one flash of beauty – zooming upriver with a sharp piping warning a streak of turquoise shot past, the sun highlighting its amazing colour – a single Kingfisher, the first we had seen for what seems months. The reassuring sight was even more welcome as it was close to a known Kingfisher nest so it appeared he was flourishing despite the months of floods.
We fought our way across the meadows to reach the protection of the tree and hedge lined boundary, hoping it would shelter us from the worst of the rain and wind. The canal, which has been cut across the meadows, starting by the weir several fields and half a mile away and running through several more fields until rejoining the main river, here forms a secretive brook between the trees. The water is slower, like liquid obsidian, so black the reflected clouds and and sunlight gleam between the leaves. There are often Robins and Wrens here, and in only a couple of months its banks will be covered with golden lesser celendine and primroses, a warming thought on this the coldest of days.
3rd December 2019 / Temp: 8.5 C / Water Level: Med. High
The brilliant low winter sun set the river and fields on fire and offered welcome warmth on what was a pretty chilly afternoon. December already, two days into the atronomical first days of winter, illustrated by the empty fields, bare trees and fast flowing river. Parties of tits dashed through the white stems and the few tattered remains of fluttering white leaves of the tall poplar trees, glowing against the bright blue sky. Tiny Wrens shot inches above the stream and disappeared into the massed plants beside the stone arched bridge, chaffinches hopped through the trees, Robins and Blackbirds gave song, while shining white gulls flew overhead above a couple of new visitors to this stretch – a pair of Swans sailing majestically upriver, their snow white wings arched (rather bizarrely called busking!) in an aggressive display of defending their territory.
It was good to see so much bird activity as the rest of the river landscape was bereft of any signs of life save for clouds of midges brought to life by the warm sun, their endless rising and falling like watching a miniature starling winter murmuration, both swarming over the water, along the banks and over the fields . No Otter spraint or even pad marks at any of the four sites despite the water level having fallen revealing scoured clean beaches strewn with blackened conkers, water sodden acorns, wood mice nibbled empty hazel nut shells, duck mussel and tiny native pea mussel shells of varying sizes, old crayfish claws, empty giant and dwarf pondsnail, ear pondsnail, and garden snail shells, water worn red brick and black stone pebbles, driftwood and the prints of water birds across the mud and sand.
Cow pats of various ages were liberally spattered across the meadows, most scraped by birds or animals and one covered in the common but quite spectacular fungi, cheilymenia fimicola, which is always the first to colonise fresh dung with its bright orange discs encircled with a ring of fine upright standing hair.
On reaching the final site, a small thick muddy beach with its new bank of autumn leaves strewn silt, equally devoid of Otter signs, we were at least rewarded by another pair of Swans chuntering away with their muffled croak, in tone not unlike the Raven’s croak – so not entirely mute. We also caught sight of a Heron flying down-river and the same solitary Little Egret we often see in the same spot beside the flooded stream at the edge of the field. It must be a good feeding station – maybe lots of frogs (we once saw what might have been a small Green Frog on the edge of that stream).
No other water birds – no Moorhen, Coot or Mallard, no Goosander or Cormorant which we occasionally spot and no signs of Otter either when we checked under the orange and white lichen splashed stone bridge. So we began examining and checking along the cracks and crevices between the slabs and there, as expected, we found lines of hibernating Garden snails, tucked into the shelter of the stones, well above any possible water level, clustered together for protection to see out the cold winter months. Would that we could do the same – although it would be a shame to miss tramping across the water meadows on such a golden afternoon.
19th November 2019 / Temp: 4 C / Water Level: High
Bone chillingly cold, thick coating of ice in the cattle trough and even the rain filled animal prints in cow pats are frozen solid, pretty much all of which were raked by an animal or bird searching for insect lavae. A weak sun trying to penetrate the cloud and at first glance very little signs of life as we trudged along, relieved that the temperature had risen a couple of degrees from earlier in the morning, and slowly adjusting to the cold – we were glad to be out and walking along the river bank.
When we reached the beach the water raked grass showed that although the water level was full, it had dropped from its previous high and we noticed empty freshwater Faucet snail and Duck mussel shells among the detritus washed up. It was good to see how clear and clean the river looked after months of murky, sediment full water – there was a good strong flow and there were no cattle in the meadows alongside the river.
We were intrigued to see a good quantity of white hairs strewn all along two mossy willow branches, caught up in the wood knots and bark. Stoats moult in autumn and southern Weasels apparently don’t, however, Weasels appear to be more common locally and given the size of the branch it did seem more likely that it was a Weasel rather than a Stoat chasing maybe a bird or just searching for food, particularly given the length of the hairs. Interesting to learn that Weasels are excellent swimmers and often live along river banks.
There appeared to be lots of birds about flying between the branches, frantically searching for food – mixed parties of tits including Blue Tits and Long-tailed Tits, Chaffinches, challenging Robins, alarm calling Blackbirds, Crows, chattering Jackdaws and Rooks, silent Gulls passing over high up and cooing Wood Pigeons. At the farthest and quietest end of the field well away from the sound of the Creamery a Little Egret rose, lifting majestically in the air flying languidly across the water meadows, crossing a Cormorant flying in the opposite direction.
Very little fungus apart from a collection of Field Blewits, Candlesnuff and some Whitewash lichen splashed across some trunks of the trees alongside the small stream. We were surprised to see that the main beam of one of the bridges over the river was covered in what we thought looked exactly like Leafy Brain, a jelly fungus which we had only ever seen growing on bracket fungus which was growing on wood. We could easily be mis-identifying this fungus and will investigate further but it does look a pretty good match. [Update: Brian 38 at Project Noah has identified this as Star Jelly Nostoc commune – a species of cyanobacterium and not a fungus at all].
Unfortunately, as with yesterday, no sign of Otter spraint at any of our sites today and no pad marks either, even along the quieter stretches of the river. Some authorities say that signal crayfish (our Otter’s main diet according to their spraint) keep to the burrows in winter and enter a state of torpor, if this is the case it may not just be the fast flooded river which has been deterring Otters from our sites, it could be lack of food. It could also be another reason there is less sediment in the water, no signal crayfish foraging and fighting and eroding the banks.
18th November 2019 / Temp: 7.5 – 8.5 C / Water Level: High
There was a cold north-easterly wind cutting into our faces so despite the sky being unbroken blue and the sunlight making the river, trees and flooded fields look beautiful, the wind soon penetrated through to our bones so we didn’t linger.
Not that there was very much to linger for. Four of our six sites showed no signs of Otter at all and of the other two sites, one had a mere three pad marks and the other seven. No spraint or anal jelly. No signal crayfish remains or freshwater mussel shells, just the pad marks to show – I came, I saw, and I didn’t stop for lunch! Very disappointing as it is the second month we have not seen any Otter spraint. However, in both months the water levels were high and the river fast flowing.
Very little else. 1 Little Egret, a good sized flock of mixed Herring and Lesser Black Back Gulls, a Sparrohawk, at least 23 Mallard, a Tree Creeper plus the usual Wrens, Robins, Magpie, Blackbirds, and a large flock of Jackdaws, Rooks and Crows rising and swirling and settling in the meadows and a Brown Hare racing across the field, before stopping and waiting to see if we intended to move and then racing off again as we continued walking towards it. On the partially flooded beach where we usually see the most Otter spraint there were clear Roe Deer slots (deer often use this stretch of the river to drink from) but again no Otter spraint or pad marks.
A narrow reed filled ditch which forms the course of a winterbourne, and filled in summer with water mint, marsh marigolds and yellow iris has been used for some animal, most likely to have been Red Fox, to kill and eat an unfortunate Mallard. All that was left were the orange feet and lots of feathers.
We passed a chatty fisherman who told us that although he hadn’t seen any Otters for some time, he had caught a lovely view of one last winter and even managed to film it – mainly to prove to his family that there were Otters in the river. He loved watching the wildlife of the river as much as fishing and talked about the number of Kingfishers there were – his highest count being ten in one afternoon!
We also had a brief chat with the farmer who described having seen what he thought might have been a pair of Greenshank, having first mistaken them for Snipe which he sees periodically, but that these had a white rump. Did we know what they might have been? We said we couldn’t be sure without looking it up and after doing so thought from his description and the habitat (which includes watercress beds) that they were probably Green Sandpipers. A wonderfully exciting sighting which we haven’t seen locally but which is included in the Rodden Nature Reserve (which is less than 2 miles away) list of species.
5th November 2019 / Temp: 11.5 C / Water Level: High
Water levels very high although not over the banks as it was three weeks or so ago, but part of the field was still awash with small lakes as can be seen by the single flowering marsh marigold marooned in the flood water. The high water together with the fast and furious currents swirling the river downstream probably also accounts for there again being no signs of Otter at any of the sites we visited.
The good news was seeing a Little Egret, at least one Heron and a Cormorant, the first we have seen since early in the year so possibly a winter migrant. There were also two Mallard which flew off as we arrived – a pathetic number compared with previous sightings but maybe a sign that numbers might be picking up.
A good number of pheasants, escapees from a nearby shoot, large flocks of mixed Jackdaws and Rooks swirling above the trees, chattering to each other in loud cackling calls, that lovely emotive autumn-winter sound echoing across the water meadows. Parties of tits in the trees doing their thing – dashing about – ever present, and Blackbirds warning calls from across the river – not a great number of birds but more and more as the season advances.
The clumps of Alder bracket fungus marching up the trunk of a tree very close to the water’s edge, looking like some crawling monster, exuding amber coloured droplets, is usually a sign of a dying tree. As this particular Alder is standing sentinel with a similar matching tree at the entrance to the footbridge steps, it will be sad to see it go.
Spikes of young Candlesnuff (Stagshorn) fungus have sprouted from their bright emerald green carpet of moss on a rotting tree stump and most of the branches along the riverbank are coated with lichen, their subtle colours providing some small change of tone from the dull, cloudy and water-logged scene.
A single Field Blewit sat in lonely splendour on the edge of the field, already well nibbled by some hungry squirrel perhaps – noticeable that it has only eaten the top centre of the mushroom, unlike other mushrooms which are always nibbled from the side.
One compensation for the dull wet autumn is the slow turning of the leaves from sombre dark green of late summer to an explosion of colours, every possible shade of gold and copper, yellow and brown. The leaves have been particularly spectacular this year, and wen we are ever lucky enough to catch a gleam of sunlight, the trees catch fire and glow.
23rd October 2019 / Temp: 7.5 C / Water Level: High
It amazes me when mist
chloroforms the fields
and wipes out whatever world exists
and walkers wade through coma
and close to but curtained from each other
sometimes there’s a second river
lying asleep along the river
where the sun rises
sunk in thought
and my soul gets caught in it
hung by the heels
it amazes me when mist
weeps as it lifts
and a crow
calls down to me in its treetop voice
that there are webs and drips
and actualities up there
and in my fog-self shocked and grey
it startles me to see the sky
Thick mist, chill air seeping into our bones, boggy underfoot and apart from a Blackbird and a flock of gulls, no birds, no movement, just a dutiful trudge around our sites to fulfil the second day of our monthly Otter survey. This is the reverse of yesterday’s autumn morning but also typical – dull, cold and grey.
Thank goodness for the mosses and the lichen covered branches and trees, they make a vivid splash of life in the dead landscape. On this branch we found Bristle Moss, Even Scalewort liverwort, and the lichen I love the most, both for its little nodules but most of all for its name – Fanfare of Trumpets which today is garlanded with a tiara of jewelled raindrops.
A garden full of lichen covered this branch – a veritable mixed border of Common Green Shield, Yellow Scale and trailing cobweb wrapped Cartilage lichen fighting each other for space.
Every tree, branch and twig seemed to support a spiders web glistening in the mist. Most were the work of the sheet weave spiders but although I peered closely into quite a few, I was unable to spot even one small spider guarding its web – probably sensibly keeping warm and dry somewhere close by.
Time for us to follow suit – head home for hot coffee, home-made soup, crusty rolls and a quiet doze in the chair out of the damp chilly day!
22nd October 2019 / Temp: 11.5 – 14.5 C / Water Level: High
A gloriously sunny morning, the air crystal clear, the sun warm on our backs and we set off with if not a song in our heart, at least in very good cheer. When we spotted a Heron and Little Egret amost immediately we felt even happier, water birds having been in short supply just recently. Catching sight of a Mayfly (possibly Iron Blue) rising from the river was a surprise, as was the Common Darter dragonfly and the Red Admiral butterfly – all no doubt pleased to see the sun.
Twenty plus Mandarin Duck took to the skies as we walked upriver, followed by at least seven Mallard and the 100 plus flock of Herring and the Lesser Black Backed Gulls scattered across the field almost glowed in the sunlight – snow white against the dark green pasture.
Flocks of finches, Pheasants, Magpies, Wrens, Crows and Wood Pigeons, 50 plus Jackdaws and Rooks circling above the stand of trees, their chatterings and calls echoing across the fields. A Buzzard appeared on the hunt- so a classic autumn morning – bright sunlight, wet grass and muddy fields; a Dusky slug devouring a mushroom, flocks of larger birds restlessly rising and settling, smaller ones flitting and busying themselves along web-strewn hedgerows, jet black Noon flies, face, wings and feet tipped with gold settling on the cow pats, Common Darter dragonflies hunting low, trees laden with blood-red hawthorn berries, Schiaperelli pink splindle fruit, black sloes, two more Herons and another Little Egret join the scene and then the river – builder-tea brown, fast and furious tossing aside branches and logs as it hurtled downstream – full of teeming life and a haven for so very many creatures – Otter, Water Vole, many species of fish, shrimp, mussel, eel, dragonfly and mayfly nymph, water spider and caddis fly lavae in their stone casing and of course the invasive American Signal Crayfish whose numbers are beginning to reach concerning numbers. An endlessly fascinating prospect.
As to our search for Otter spraint, December 2018 was the last time we found no signs of Otter during our monthly survey, for the same reason – partially flooded fields, beaches under water and high water levels. The levels have dropped slightly since last week but still too high it seems to tempt Otter to visit. Disappointing but we hope for better sightings next month.
22nd October 2019
We have received a very full and helpful reply from the Environment Agency in response to our concern at the increased sediment and turbidity in the water along our stretch and to our request for a sight of the fish survey which was carried out in August.
Mr Christopher Doyle of the Agency writes: “We are currently working with partner organisations such as the Bristol Avon Catchment Partnership, Farming and Wildlife Advisory Group (FWAG) and the Bristol Avon Rivers Trust (BART) to identify and tackle problem areas in the catchment, a good example being the Somerset Frome Sediment Pathways Project.”
This website is wide-ranging and informative and we look forward to reading it in more detail.
Survey Date: 28/08/2019
Sub Catchment: Somerset Frome
Chub [Leuciscus cephalus] 21
Dace [Leuciscus leuciscus] 1
Bleak [Alburnus alburnus] 13
Gudgeon [Gobio gobio] 9
Roach [Rutilus rutilus] 11
Rudd [Scardinius erythrophthalmus] 1
Perch [Perca fluviatilis] 4
“Unfortunately, this survey was aborted after one run (we would normally undertake three runs over the same stretch of river to obtain a catch depletion) due to the depth of the water being too great to efficiently and safely electric fish and due to the presence of underwater obstructions, such as fallen tree limbs.”
15th October 2019 / Temp: 16 C / Water Level: High
Raging torrent, flooded fields, thundering weir and mounds of detritus showing the river overflowed its banks – it all looked pretty dramatic. However, fortune favours the brave, and we hadn’t walked far before the clouds parted, the temperature rose, and we managed the whole walk under clear blue skies and warm sunshine and even spotted three Red Admiral butterflies which had somehow survived the persistent downpours of the past two or three weeks.
The sun immediately transformed the landscape, the water sparkled and danced, the Aspens, Hawthorns and Hornbeams caught fire, their leaves fluttering in the breeze, flaunting their scarlet and gold leaves and the grasses glittered with raindrops. It felt good to be alive, despite trudging through squelchy mud and cow pat pools. The downside of high water level is the dearth of Otter spraint and finding that most of the beaches were totally under water but the upside is that it gave us the opportunity to see what else is thriving in the river and along the water meadows.
One lovely discovery the bright sunlight highlighted was the tiny Bark Bonnet mushrooms growing among the bristle moss along a branch of the large willow tree which dominates the gravel beach. The caps of these mushrooms were no bigger than 5mm, tiny, perfectly formed and so delicate, like the most exquisite egg shell china, calling to mind Edmund de Waal’s paean to white porcelain. So many different lichens had also found a home and were growing along the same branch, including the Common Green Shield lichen (pale grey when dry and yellow green when wet) and Yellow Scale (Maritime Sunburst) lichen and others which we have as yet been unable to identify.
They made such a splash of bright colour, perfect and unblemished, standing aloof from the devastation on the beach beneath which was almost entirely under water, the roots clogged with flood detritus – trainers, plastic bottles, broken planks of wood, beer cans, plastic bags in great piles including, rather bizarrely, golf balls – we collected 8!
Exploring the areas of beach which were not underwater, we noticed the first empty freshwater mussel shell we had seen since last winter, lots of crayfish remains, earthworms washed down from the banks, lots of empty garden snail shells but also sunshine yellow and grey grove snails clinging to the stems of plants, presumably to keep clear of the flood water.
The warm sunshine seems to have brought out a surprising number of bugs, flies and beetles as well as a few wasps. We liked the Tarnished Plant bug (above) mainly for it’s charming white heart; we offer the name with the caveat that the esteemed Naturespot website warn of identity difficulty with this species of bug as differences between many of them are almost impossible to see without dissection.
We were amused by the lines of dozens of common flies, sunning themselves on every tree trunk facing the sun, joined on one tree by a Dancing Blue Leaf (or flea) beetle which feed on sallows, great willowherb and purple loosestrife, all of which grow with profusion along the river bank. Near the top of one trunk, working its achingly slow way towards the canopy we also spotted a tree slug.
Still not that many birds – a number of assertively singing Robins, a small flock of twittering finches, Goldfinches and Greenfinches among them, a Jay, the usual suspects – noisy Jackdaws, Crows, Wood Pigeons and Magpies, a couple of Buzzards circling, totally ignored by a large flock of passing gulls, but we were most pleased to hear a Moorhen and see at least one Heron, either the same bird twice or another bird, the first water birds we have seen for months.
Lots of fungus, both under a hawthorn hedge (possibly Winter Twiglet as above) on the ground (below), or decorating tree branches some of which, when we have a spare five or six hours, we may attempt to identify! All in all, the afternoon produced a satisfyingly goodly haul for mid-October.
19th September 2019 / Temp: 14 C – 20 C / Water Level: Very Low
The second day of our Otter survey was another gloriously sunny morning, fresh and sparkling, with clear blue skies although our early start meant a sharp autumnal chill in the air. Disappointingly little to see, no signs of Otter at any of the first three sites, no water birds and few signs of any life at all, so we were pleased to spot the Orange Balsam bush; this is a new species for us and even though the flowers were going over, they still made a vivid splash of colour in what was mostly a mono-green landscape.
As we walked we heard the lovely croak of a Raven, the screech of a young Buzzard and the less welcome squawks of Pheasants from the adjoining fields where they are bred for shooting. A handful of dragonflies – four Southern Hawker and one Common Darter was the sum of the long walk. A few Small Whites were the only butterflies but there were dozens of what looked like wool carder bees feeding on a small clump of Himalyan Balsam – a despised invasive plant but from our observation always attracting lots of bees at a time when few other plants are in flower. A pity the plant is so rampant, quickly smothering nearby native plants until very little else will grow because they are also rather attractive flowers.
Thankfully when we reached the bridge, things began to look up. We disturbed a Grey Wagtail perched on one of the many stones in this part of the river and barely had he flown off before a Kingfisher exploded past, inches above the water, low and fast with a flash of brilliant blue. We found two fresh and three recent Otter spraint, as so often on the bridge pier, surrounded by crayfish remains and enjoyed leaning on the bridge watching numerous small pale buff flies rising from the water. They could have been caddis flies but unfortunately we were too far away to get a positive identification.
Southern Hawker – copyright Rebecca Muirhead
Even better, as we reached the final site, we saw a Grey Heron lifting slowly and lazily from the river bank where we disturbed his day’s fishing – the first Heron we have seen along this stretch of the river since June, so a very welcome sight. A surprising number of Dragonflies here, three Southern Hawkers plus two mating, a Brown Hawker and at least four Common Hawkers as well as a couple of Common Blue damselflies. Crane flies seem to have replaced grasshoppers in the tussocky grass of the water meadow as we walk across and once again, lots of pale mayflies rising from the water.
We sat down to rest on the riverbank, enjoying the quiet peace of the afternoon, feeling the hot sun on our backs contentedly watching the dragonflies’ fast flight up and down the river, sometimes chasing each other or merely resting on the water reeds, while fish plopped in the water creating widening rings, and even noting the slow waves from a dog jumping in and chasing sticks farther downstream. The sharper sighted of us said idly “Do you suppose that could be Otter spraint” and pointed to two brown bone filled lumps by his feet. We poked them over to reveal the telltale red colouring together with white bone fragments and pearls of a Signal crayfish – Otter spraint – what serendipidy!! And what lovely successful end to the day.
18th September 2019 / Temp: 15.5 – 18 C / Water Level: Very Low
Striding out to do the monthly otter survey on a beautifully clear September morning – wall to wall blue sky, full sun and just a slight nip in the air to confirm summer is over. Did I say striding? A slight exaggeration perhaps, one of us is nearly 82 and still not fully recovered from a severe arthritic flare-up, the other is not that much younger and rather stout so something between a grimly determined lurch and a stout ash-stick assisted stagger might be nearer the mark. But the wonderful gift of a spell of perfect autumn sunshine makes aches and pains seem trivial and it feels good to be alive.
Otter pad marks and anal jelly at the first site, nothing on the second, but 3 sets of pad marks and recent spraint at the third site plus crayfish remains lifts our spirits still further, heightened still more by catching sight of a Dipper and then 5 Mandarin ducks and 5 Mallard. So good to see there are some water birds around as we have seen barely any on the downstream stretch of the river for the past three months.
Our last site is our favourite. So quiet and secluded, surrounded by hawthorn trees thick with scarlet berries, blackthorns with their purple sloes ready for picking and bramble bushes loaded with fat juicy looking blackberries glistening in the sun. The stony beach is always filled with spraint as indeed it is today, 7 fresh and 6 recent, another sighting of a Dipper and lots of Mayflies rising from the water into the sunlight.
The water level is so very low at the moment so we can wade around checking on the intriguing small holes in the river bank, the subject of endless speculation (we are not absolutely sure but given the arched entrance and position on the banks, we believe they may well be entrances to crayfish burrows). Signal Crayfish shelter under rocks and boulders, within tree roots or in cavities within banks and in winter shelter in burrows and enter a state of torpor. These burrows are formed of many inter-connecting tunnels, and can be up to two metres deep. We also wanted to get a closer look at the liverworts clinging to the banks, none of which are we able to identify – any advice would be warmly welcomed!
Addendum: We sent a photograph to Ispot who came back with an identification for two of the three plants. Evidently the largest plant is a bog-standard Hairy Bittercress; the bright green shiny plant beside it, which we had assumed was a liverwort, has instead been identified as a fern – specifically a gametophyte. The tiny plants of which form when spores are released from the underside of fern leaves, fall on suitably damp ground and once the gametophytes have grown and are fertilised, a new adult fern will begin to grow. Great to learn something new and have a mystery solved although unfortunately the dimness of the photograph made identifying the third plant impossible.
The trailing river moss nearer the beach is coated brown with some sort of sediment, possibly cattle excrement as the cows enter the river here to drink and inevitably excrete into the river or even, if several recent and current academic studies are able to prove, crayfish burrowing causing fine sediment in the water course and turbidity most affected by fighting crayfish not only burrowing but also foraging.
It’s good to see that the fast flowing water does eventually clean and disperse the sediment and only a matter of 20 metres or so down-stream the river moss is bright green again and appears clean enough to support the lavae so necessary to the Dippers. Fallen trees and other detritus impedes the flow to such an extent it cannot clear the sediment farther downstream where the water weed remains worryingly thickly coated over a long stretch, despite the help of a functioning weir (the other weir on this stretch is presently completely dry).
There is also a water extraction plant at the point near where the problem starts so it may very well be that the combination of slowed flow, water extraction and cattle excrement as well as other possible pollutants can have led to this situation. We wonder if this has affected the weeds so much it is depriving the water and fish of oxygen and that is why we have seen so few water birds along that lower stretch of the river.
Finally, a totally inadequate photograph of Ivy bees exploring a long south-facing sandy bank, about 40 metres long. Probably no photo could illustrate or properly give an impression of the 1,000 plus bees constantly on the move here. The farmer who drew them to our attention said that they appeared every year around this time when the Ivy flowers were just forming, and the numbers had just grown and grown over the years as the steep bank formed a border to the field and they were quite undisturbed. He is a keen bird watcher who often sees Snipe and knows the Kingfisher and Dipper nest sites. We love to hear him talking about the dozens of Sand Martins which used to nest along a sandy bank close by the river when he was a boy and when he points out to us the line and remains of what had been the canals, leats and workings that were once used to flood the water meadows thereby enriching the spring grass, a system of agricultural improvement dating back over 500 years.
Whilst we were chatting, we suddenly noticed that we had brought a passenger up from somewhere along the river – a harvestman clinging to a sleeve of a sweatshirt. It is one we have never seen before and we were astonished at the sheer length of his legs and intrigued by what looked like claws at the end of its antennae – quite extraordinary! After searching books and internet once we arrived home we think it might have been a grandly-named Dicranopalpus ramosus agg. which according to Naturespot has spread across Europe from Morocco. They go on to say that as early as 1957, it was reported in Bournemouth in southern England, from where it spread. It reached Scotland in 2000 and is now quite frequent in Britain. It does seem striking how many quite commonplace species of plants, insects etc have come to this country over the centuries and are still arriving. Whether this is due to changes in climate or other explanation we have no idea but it is interesting nonetheless.
13th September 2019 / Temp: 15.5 C / Water Level: Low
What could be more enjoyable on a fresh, clear September morning when the sun is sparkling off the water and a Grey Wagtail is hopping across the stones, than tramping about exploring the river bed. Armed with nets, buckets, trays, hand-lens, cameras and notebooks and our trusty FSC Guide, we climbed gingerly down the steep bank and began our search between the large stones and moss covered boulders of the gravely river bed for suitable kick-sweep sites
The river is fast flowing here, gouging troughs and hollows in unexpected places, so we tread with care and eventually take two samples – one from mid-stream where the water is clear and one from a couple of yards out from the bank where lots of small creatures hide among the moss.
Although the river mid-stream is gin clear, towards the bank it seems to mirror the countryside, worn out by the summer months, and looking as if it could do with a few winter high water weeks to wash everything through.
Both samples pretty much matched the samples we took at the end of May – Signal crayfish (larger), Bullhead, swimming Mayfly nymphs, freshwater Shrimps, Ramshorn snail and cased caddisfly lavae. No hoglouse or leech but both biting and non-biting midge lavae as well as blackfly lava.
Our rather amateurish BMWP assessment gave a score in the upper 70s – lower than the May score and giving a water quality of Fair biological quality against the ealier Good. Bearing in mind that the May score was in the lower end of the Good score, we think that a reasonable supposition is that the river is Fair-Good or Good-Fair biological quality. Given the local wildlife using the river, Otters, Kingfishers, Dippers, Trout, several species of Mayflies, Dragonflies and Damselflies, but no stoneflies, this is what we would expect. Of course we need to do the sampling rather more often and for a longer period to get a proper idea and certainly hope, health and agility permitting, to do take more samples in the future.
10th September 2019 / Temp: 18.5C / Water Level: Low
Brown Hawker Dragonfly / copyright – Keith Edwins
Overcast and muggy so a quick check of a couple of Otter sites seemed the best plan as we would be unlikely to see any butterflies or bees in these conditions.
The bridge piers proved again a good source of Otter spraint, as is often the case when water levels are low. Old, recent and very fresh spraint, the latter red, the scattered remains of signal crayfish on both piers reinforcing evidence of the last meal. We were unsuccessful at the second site which showed no signs of Otter activity at all, and equally disappointed that the new footpath we checked out didn’t take us to a previously unexplored stretch of river as we had hoped. However, good to tick it off our list of possibilities.
Tachinid fly – possibly Eriothrix rufomaculata
They were a few plants with some flowers clinging on – gypsywort, creeping thistle, fools watercress, water mint, great bindweed, stitchwort, water forget-me-not, a patch of beautiful striking purple loosestrife and even a few brambles. One Small White butterfly, a Brown Hawker and two Southern Hawker dragonflies, several Field Grasshoppers, a couple of tachinid flies and a single Crane fly were the only insects to be seen. A meagre few birds, Buzzard, Magpie, Chaffinch, Jackdaws Rooks and Crows, Pheasants – a single Coot and no other water birds which is a constant cause of concern.
Given the derth of anything of interest, it seemed that this was possibly a good time to follow Jeremy Dagley’s advice in The Guardian newspaper’s Country Diary and look at cow pats which he assures his readers “This dipteran dung world is significant not only for its diversity but for its biomass. One average-sized cowpat may contain 1,000 insect larvae, and in a summer grazing season one cow’s dung could support a million flies.” Struggling to take pleasure in the thought of a million flies, we reminded ourselves that flies are excellent pollinators and food for insect eating birds so….
We drew a blank after checking cow pat after cow pat and saw nothing apart from a few desultory flies, not quite the bonanza we had been hoping for, until as we approached one pat quite close to the hedge edging the field, a small black Rove beetle climbed out of one of the holes and scurried off, far too quickly for identification or a photograph.
We then noticed on the same cow pat what looked like a female Woolf spider with an egg sac tucked under her abdomen. We had seen lots of the usual small black spiders which seem to teem in grassy meadows and so were not surprised to see the Woolf spider, but it seems a strange time of the year for her to be carrying eggs, we will have to investigate further. She could of course be carrying spiderlings, which do appear in the autumn – we will have to find out.
Exciting though an afternoon examining cow pats undoubtedly was (evidently cows are averse to eating the grass close to their dung, so the well-fertised grass which grows uneaten around the pats are a haven for insects) we decided we had had enough entertainment for one day but promised ourselves to look again, at fresh dung, on another occasion, which might prove more rewarding in a search for interesting occupants.
Or maybe not…. quite suddenly other alternatives, hated jobs like sorting out the sock drawer or clearing out the garage began to have an overwhelming appeal!
28th August 2019: Frome Angling Association posted the above photograph and the quotation below on their Facebook page:
“The Environment Agency did a fish survey today down The Factory. Unfortunately the trees made it very difficult to do the survey so they couldn’t complete it however they managed to catch a number of huge chub and a lovely perch. The perch in the photo was around 40cm and the chub was over 50cm!!”
The survey report a copy of which the Environmental Agency sent to us showed a catch of 21 Chub, 1 Dace, 13 Bleak, 9 Gudgeon, 11 Roach, 1 Rudd, 4 Perch before the survey was aborted due to the number of fallen trees in the river.
23rd August 2019 / Temp: 21C / Water Level: Low
There is a magical quality to late afternoons and early evenings at the end of summer – something to do with the angle of the sun over the fields, the freshening of the air and the quiet which seems to descend. This was certainly the case when, after an exhausting day we went to the river, climbed over the stile, found a shady spot under the trees from which we could see the entire meadow, spread out the picnic rug, fished out our books and collapsed! The books went unopened as we watched the faint zephyrs, cool and soft, lift the willow branches above us and rustle the dry leaves of the white poplars.
The sky was unbroken blue, the sun warm and the air so clear and fresh, like a glass of cold water on a hot day. We watched a pair of tree creepers continuously scuttling up and down the thicker branches of the willow, like little mice, so small, before flying to the next tree – repeat.
A Brown Hawker dragonfly was criss-crossing a small area of the meadow close to a stand of trees backwards and forwards at dizzying speed, inches above the grass, a red dock beetle landed on the rug, a party of tits flittered and flurried through the branches and a small aircraft droned into view, the sun catching its silver wings, a few desultary cabbage whites crossed and re-crossed the field, a crow squawked a greeting as it passed overhead and Wood Pigeons clattered, rose and swooped to the trees on the other side of the river and then flew back again. Nothing really happened – just a perfect quiet time watching the world go by.
We watched a fly fisherman in waders climb over the stile, walk over to the river bank beside the best pool and set down his rod before beginning to unpack his gear and then kneeling on the grass to select and carefully tie a fly. When satisfied, he waded into the centre of the river and began to fish for brown trout. Meanwhile, back at the fence, another visitor arrived, a Signal Crayfish forager, climbed over the stile and strode off along the bank to check his traps. A veritable hive of busy-ness and activity!
We managed to rouse ourselves from our stupor at last, and also crossed the field and began walking along beside the river, checking the purple loosestrife, himalayan balsam and umbelifers for signs of life while also keeping a careful watch on the water.
We were amply rewarded for our vigilance, one of us saw our first Brown Argus butterfly pushing for space among the bees, flies, Large Whites and Painted Ladies on the Saracen’s Woundwort and when the other walked on he spotted a pair of Dippers among the stones and rocks on the river bed, less than a mile downriver from our earlier sightings! They were both bobbing up and down, mimicking Steve Smith the Australian cricketer at the crease, so exciting as although we suspected there might be a pair, we had only ever seen one. Who knows,perhaps they are raising young.
Sheer idleness persuaded us to wade gingerly across the river, steadying ourselves with our sticks, rather than the long walk to the stile, impervious to soaking trousers and shoes alike, which enabled us to join an easy footpath on the far bank. Idleness that is and the hope that the river current would be strong enough to rinse off at least some of the cowpat excrement from one trouser leg and shoe. Concentration on catching a good shot of the Argus butterfly was necessary – watching where I put my feet might also have been a good idea. However, although the river didn’t quite manage a good clean, at least it rinsed off the worst.
Looking up and down the river from the middle was delightful – it looked so clear, riffling over stones and forming placid pools, flat enough to form perfect reflections of the trees and sky. The final pleasure on arrival at the opposite bank was the discovery of two large water-worn stones close to each other two piles of Otter spraint on each, one set recent the other so fresh the anal jelly was still wet and glistening. A magnificent final flourish on which to head for home.
Difficult to find a moral but the secret appeared to be a mixture of attentiveness and laziness – which had certainly brought the afternoon’s best rewards.
20th August 2019 / Temp: 19C / Water Level: Low
The one recent and two fresh spraints on the top of one of the bridge piers, red from Signal crayfish and filled with crayfish calcium pearls were the sole signs of Otter, although we only visited two sites on our afternoon saunter so who knows, the other sites may have been choc-a-bloc.
The weather has been chill, wet and very windy so the welcome sunshine lured us out for a short stroll. The river meadows look pretty lifeless, apart from the hordes of grasshoppers and white moths, there was little insect life. The bright splashes of colour came from the plants on the very edge of the river, stately purple loosestrife and floppy comfrey, striking pink great willowherb, pale blue water forget-me-not, deep blue brook lime, pale mauve water mint, white fools watercress, white and pale pink Himalayan balsam, the dull yellow trifid bur marigold and the golden yellow buttercups and tansy, none of which surprisingly appeared to attract any insects. A large thick mass of bramble however, with its mixture of black, red and green berries and a scattering of flowers, was a hive of activity, bees, wasps and flies buzzing and humming all over the bushes.
Large Red Damselfy (male)
We did eventually spot several Banded and a single Beautiful Demoiselle, a Large Red and a couple of Common Blue damselflies, several Brown Hawkers with their beautiful golden-bronze wings, and a Common Darter dragonfly but so few – the abundance of high summer definitely over. Similarly with the butterflies, a couple of Commas, a Small Tortoiseshell, abundant Large Whites were all we saw.
Beautiful Demoiselle damselfly (female)
We have no idea what has happened to the water birds – one lonely Moorhen investigating the reeds was all we saw, the others are presumably hiding and moulting. Most noticeable was the absence of Mallard which are usually so evident in good, sometimes huge numbers but also no Heron, Little Egret or Kingfisher, which are frequent along this stretch of the river.
However, we saw lots of tits, mostly Long Tailed, a pair of Buzzard, circling high, high overhead and heard a Raven. What lifted our spirts more than anything was the sight of twenty or more Swallows, several families weaving, wheeling and zooming over the river, showing off their astonishing aerobatic abilities, feeding up before they start their long journey back to South Africa in the coming weeks.
Swallows leaving is the signal for the end of summer, emphasised by the fat purple sloes, the trees here always a good source, and a good harvest this year by the looks of them, the reddening hawthorn berries, white snowberries and ripening blackberries. Thoughts inevitably turn to sloe gin and chutney but we are always reluctant to let go of the exuberant flowers, grasses and insects of summer every year and this year is no exception, the weather never being hot enough for us to long for cool and fresh autumn days.
13th August 2019 / Temp: 18 C / Water Level Medium
Cooler after rain storms and lows but the sun was warm and the sky blue so walking through the water meadows was very pleasant. Very little activity and very few flowering plants since haymaking cut down the massed umbellifers which were a great source of insects, but maybe the rain with encourage a second flowering – an extreme Chelsea chop! A few desultory butterflies, Large White, Meadow Brown and Gateway among them, no sign of ground beetles around the water trough, a drowned moth, a few pond skaters and a common blue damselfly whizzing overhead was the sum of it.
No signs of Otters at any of the four sites and still no water birds along the entire stretch of the river, not even the ubiquitous Mallard, but an Emperor dragonfly darting backwards and forwards over the water above the weir made a striking splash of colour against the fresh bright green leaves of the bur-reed, quite casting the smaller damselflies into the shade. The Brown Hawker dragonflies may not be so colourful but there were more of them, we spotted 6 during our walk along the river bank, flashing their golden brown wings in the warm sunshine.
The big beach looked a little woebegone, a cattle-trodden scene of broken plants strewn all the way across, but there were arching branches of purple headed burdock and enough plants on the margins to interest a good number of Banded Demoiselles, Common Blue and Blue-tailed damselflies, chasing each other amongst the reeds, although they were not so plentiful as before the rains. We found a dead Forest Bug, its red legs catching the eye, probably also a victim of the rains but little else.
Walking beyond the big beach although the sun-warmed grass is alive with meadow grasshoppers, leaping to avoid our footfall and white grass moths, the river becomes more shaded by a band of trees on both banks with an undergrowth of snowberry bushes their berries gleaming in the shadows in which we saw a couple of small creamy-white mushrooms, possibly Ivory Bonnets. Thick clumps of saracens woundwort interspersed with wild angelica had formed along the bank and the angelica like most umbellifers was covered with insects, hoverflies, icheumon wasps, flies and a few worker bees. It was here on a clear patch of grass that we found a scatter of woodpigeon feathers, a clear sign of a Sparrowhawk’s recent meal.
We moved on to the final site in the rather desperate hope of Otter activity which was dashed as soon as we arrived. However the sun was warm, the bank inviting and the quiet peacefulness of the afternoon persuaded us to linger, sit on the grass and watch the minute fishes darting about into the deeper pools in the mud left by an animal’s prints – their own sun-warmed hot tubs. Sitting on a river bank looking at nothing and everything enlivens an August afternoon.
A male Southern Hawker dragonfly chose a plant close by to hang on, allowing us the opportunity to admire its jewelled markings; a Red Admiral fluttered down, making a brilliant splash of scarlet in the grass, followed by a stippled brown and orange Comma; a pair of Common Blue damselfies clung to a leaf and each other, mating; one of the many Brown Hawker dragonflies appeared, Blue-tailed and more Common Blue damselflies investigated the waters edge, and a Mason wasp sat on a leaf vying for attention.
We heard a Green Woodpecker’s call across the meadow, inadvertantly disturbed a large Frog from the ledge below who leapt up and sat between us, and then, out of nowhere, the scintillating blue flash of a Kingfisher heading downriver towards us when it performed a fautless swerve as it veered away, back upstream, giving us a brilliant view of its vivid blue-green turquoise wings.
A perfect end to a lovely summer afternoon by the river.
29th July 2019 / Temp: 23-20 C / Water Level Low
The purple loosestrife plots the line of the narrow stream, which is otherwise completely obscured by the riot of flowering plants: wild angelica, flowering teasel, creeping thistle, Himalayan balsam, great willowherb, hedge bindweed, watermint, meadowsweet, cow parsley, hogweed, common valerian, welted thistle and a good crop of stinging nettle. As well as being a stunning sight, they provide a feast not only for the butterflies, Gatekeeper, Small Tortoiseshell, Large White, Small Heath, Meadow Brown and Small Skipper but also for the damselflies, Common Blue, Banded Demoiselle and Beautiful Demoiselle, a couple of Brown Hawker dragonflies and uncountable numbers of bees. This luxuriant abundance of flowers and insects is heart-warming, just looking at the line lifts the spirits and provides a glowing memory of high summer to carry us through the dark days of autum and winter. The swallows, possibly as many as a dozen, dive and swirl in the air above us, swooping low, inches over the grass, before flying up to the telegraph wires where they gather, perching and twittering,
As we crossed the field to begin our survey we disturbed a hare, which immediately took off at high speed and was soon lost to sight, hidden in amongst the thick tussocky grass. We usually see them racing across the adjacent open fields but as these have been recently harvested, he may feel safer in this area of unmown grass despite the house only 50 yards close by. The dividing hedge bordering this field had attracted a great number of Gatekeepers, both on the leaves and in the grass below, whereas when we reached the field on the other side there were none but lots of Meadow Brown, Small White butterflies, Common Blue and Banded Demoiselle damselflies. A Heron took off as soon as we appeared as did 2 Lesser Black Backed Gulls.
Having drawn a blank at the first two sites, we arrived at the third, still showing no sign of Otter, nothing to see but a stately Common Mullein in lonely splendour with a few red soldier beetles examining its flowers while close to the water there was a great mass of Great Willowherb plants in full flower, absolutely smothered, mainly by honey bees. By now we began to think we were unlucky, that we wouldn’t see anything today, and started the long trudge along the animal worn track, rather weary and very hot to the final site.
Having crawled under the electrict fence, we were so busy watching the large flock of at least 30 Jackdaws and Rooks spread out over the field, rising and falling, forever on the move, that we nearly missed a large quantity of fresh Otter spraint on the path, red-brown and filled with the claws and bones of a recent meal of American Signal crayfish. A few yards farther on, more spraint, older, dried, deposited neatly in the centre of a large dry cowpat, and farther on, yet more fresh spraint filled with crayfish pearls and bones. Much heartened, heat and tiredness forgotten, we walked on, startling 2 Swans and about 15 Mallard and then 6 Goosander and a Heron, all scattering upriver or taking to the air at our approach.
We then slowed and slowly approached the backwater stream, moving stealthily, hardly daring to breathe, and then to our delight our care was rewarded, there was the Dipper as we had hoped, standing on a fallen branch in the river, bobbing up and down, looking around him. We watched the bird for some time perfectly enchanted before a slight movement startled it and it flew off. However, it was enough, we were so pleased to see it for a second time nearly a month after the first, in the same place at the same time of the day, giving us hope that it might be a sign that it is nesting close by.
Our final workout was a scramble through briars, brambles and hawthorn branches down the short but steep bank to the Otter’s secret beach, not helped by hearing the Raven’s croak and the Buzzard’s mew as he circled overhead, hoping no doubt to find a body or two to lunch on. This site at least didn’t disappoint; fourteen piles of spraint from recent to glistening fresh deposited on stones and boulders spread across the beach. Some crayfish remains scattered between the stones and in the river, a couple of discarded river mussel shells. A shrill whistle and like a bullet from a rifle, an orange and blue-turquoise body shot past, inches above the water, a Kingfisher – what a triumphant end to the day!
28th July 2019 / Temp: 18.5-20 C / Water Level: Low – Medium
After last week’s record breaking heatwave, the countryside looks exhausted, and the usual slow decline of the plants and flowers of summer has suddenly accelerated leaving bedraggled sun scorched leaved plants, heavy with seed, which we usually associate with late August. This effect has been exaggerated by the recent haymaking, all the fields having been mowed for silage leaving them shorn of the wild flowers and the long waving grasses which looked so magical, now the fields look like bog standard pasture.
Only a few weeks ago the beach was a jungle of head-height flowering plants where we carefully picked a tentative path, whereas now that the heiffers have been let into the field and trampled their way across to drink, the beach is a wasteland of smashed and broken down plants, apart from a few clumps of fat hen and nettles, and those traps for the unwary, very large cow pats! However, help is at hand, the next ten days are forecasted to be thunderstorms and heavy rainfall – by our next visit, the fields will be transformed again.
Lots of Banded and Beautiful Demoiselle damselflies, Blue Tailed and Common Blue as well as many Brown Hawker dragonflies which we saw both in the trees and along most sites. Gatekeepers and Small Whites butterflies predominated but we also saw Red Admiral, Meadow Brown and one Comma whose numbers seem to be down this year.
Comma – copyright John Hansford
We stood for ages watching a newly emerged dragonfly sitting still on a reed which having discarded its exoskeleton had climbed up the stem awaiting full development. It was very pale and its wings were still short and not fully formed. Evidently the whole process of expanding wings and hardening the abdomen lasts between 1 hour for damselflies to 3 hours for dragonflies, so we didn’t wait for the full metamorphosis!
Having seen two Kingfishers at separate sites we were not surprised while chatting to a walker who volunteered with the local wildlife photographer Simon King, to hear that he had seen a Kingfisher nest close by the small tributary where we often heard them. He also said that Simon King, who left a trout out every night, filmed the frequently visiting Otters on his stretch of the river. When we reached the next site, we met a visitor new to the area who had seen an Otter at 11.30 the previous morning running along the river bank and sliding into the water! This seemed jolly unfair as our search for Otter activity had so far been quite fruitless, although the day was eventually saved when at the last site we did at last see some recent spraint.
10th July 2019 / Temp: 22 C / Water Level: Low
Pond Skaters in the cattle trough
Although warm it was cloudy which made the air extremely humid. We were amused to see a number of pond skaters skittering around on the pollen coated water in the cattle trough – accompanied by one solitary black insect – a scavenging water beetle? – who knows!
Lots of damselflies – Azure, Beautiful Demoiselle, Blue tail, Banded Demoiselle, Common Blue and a single pair of Brown Hawker dragonflies. Several butterflies, mostly Meadow Brown, but also Large White, Ringlet and Painted Lady; we also caught a brief glimpse of a beautiful Scarlet Tiger moth which always catches the eye. A few ladybirds but strangely only a couple of bees and no hoverflies during our entire walk despite masses of hedge bedstraw and brambles in full flower. Presumably the cloudy conditions did not suit. The insect crawling over almost every flower, often two and three on one flower head, was the Common Red Soldier beetle – they were everywhere!
The meadow grasses were thickly coated with seeds – how quick from flower to seed it has seemed this year. The cattle have not been let into the fields so the grasses are incredibly tall, lush and tussocky, and by not crossing the gravel beach and crushing the plants they have grown into a veritable jungle, head and shoulder high with umbelifers, purple loosestrife, great willow herb, fat hen, Himalayan balsam, hemlock, thistles and stinging nettles stinging and scratching our arms as we picked a careful path along the beach – machetes are probably called for!
Lots of damselflies along the reed edge and over the water, particularly the banded demoiselles and the blues but no sign of Otter spraint, Mallard, Kingfishers or Pied Wagtails although we did disturb a family group of nine Goosander females with their chestnut heads and watched a nosiy Sparrowhawk, shrieking loudly as he circled a clump of trees before settling on a telegraph wire for a while before flying off.
We checked the piers under the bridge before leaving and on one side there were the scattered remains of several meals – crayfish claws and lots of legs and pearls among the dried flotsam and debris of recent floods and on the other side copious amounts of spraint, half a dozen separate piles, both fresh and recent. Always heartening to see signs of Otter activity even if we don’t see the Otters!
28th June 2019 / Temp: 23-27 C / Water Level: Low
Little Egret on the Weir c. Rebecca Muirhead
From the moment we climbed over the stile to be met by the intoxicating scent of lime tree flowers, the afternoon shouted summer had arrived at last. As we walked across the water meadow we saw a Heron rising from the bank and flap off over the trees, a Little Egret posing coolly on the weir, Red Admirals, Peacocks and Meadow Brown butterflies fluttering around our heads and we even spotted a shy Silver Y moth flying on and on as we ran after it, trying unsuccessfully to capture a photograph before it disappeared, hiding in the long grass.
The wind dropped, the sky cleared, it was extremely hot and as we reached the river a Kingfisher flashed by – this was definitely going to be a day to remember. And so it was. All along the river’s reed and meadow-sweet edged banks were dozens upon dozens of damselflies! Blue-tailed, Common Blue, Large Red, Banded Demoiselle, Beautiful Demoiselle and Azure damselflies chasing, ovipositing, mating and just dashing about, and we even caught sight of a female Broad-bodied Chaser flashing her brilliant gold body as she disappeared upstream – our first dragonfly of the season. These are the sights we had been expecting and hoping for for weeks – and here it is – summer.
Common Blue damselflies mating c. Rebecca Muirhead
The muddy pond-like ditch in the corner of the field was covered with a carpet so thick with water speedwell, brook lime, water forget-me-not and watercress that hardly an inch of clear water was visible but those small spaces had more than their fair share of pond skaters buzzing around.
Along the river edge fully opened yellow water lilies and their great flat platelike pads made useful resting places for damselflies and the unfortunate few of the many shoals of tiny silvery minnows which when leaping out of the water landed on the pads by mistake before frantically manoevering themselves back into the water. We heard a Moorhen’s warning squawk but he was well hidden unlike the noisy, clattering Wood Pigeons and the beautiful mewing Buzzard wheeling slowly high above us.
Large Red damselfly c. Rebecca Muirhead
It was good to remember the warmth of the sun and feast of insects as the survey earlier in the day was a duplicate of the day before – strong blustery north-easterly winds and high milky cloud often obscuring the sun. That particular stretch of the river has fewer trees which expose the area to the full force of the wind so we saw little of interest – a few damselflies, no butterflies and no signs of Otter. But we soon approached the quieter stretch protected by a thick hedge and were relieved to see a Heron lifting from the water with a few leisurely flaps of his huge wings, and a couple of Swans, 8 or 9 Mallard and 4 Mandarin Ducks skittering away from us upriver. The river is lined by a dense impenetrable hedge of bramble bushes covered with white and pink flowers, each of which seemed to have a bee burying its nose in the centre, some of whom managing to get more pollen on their faces than nectar on their tongues!
Lots more damselflies here, Common Blue, Banded Demoiselles and Beautiful Demoiselles, Blackbirds singing, Jackdaws calling and Swallows swooping down over the meadow. One recent spraint and one old was the sum total of Otter activity on the beach; the cows had been moved on to another field which made our search easier but they had left their calling cards splattered across the beach, their hoof prints churned deep in the soft mud and this together with the Swan and Goose excrement may not have been an attractive sight for the Otters. But beyond the beach were more yellow water lillies with clumps of reed grasses and a few damselflies so the defiled beach was soon forgotten.
Crossing into the next field we found it hadn’t been either harvested or grazed by the cattle so wading through the long grass along to the survey site was hard work. We have been used to following the well-worn Badger run but the path seemed to have mysteriously disappeared leaving long, thick lush growth of shin deep tussocky grasses to trudge through. The sound of the families of Rooks swooping across the field and around their rookery with cheerful kaas and calls cheered us on our way as did the sight of more Mandarin ducks and Mallard and another couple of Swans – very good to see after the lack of water birds on all the sites yesterday.
The top beach was idyllic as always. The water here rushing, rippling and splashing over stones and boulders, gin clear and cool beneath the overhanging willows – a perfect spot for Dippers and there it was, the very first Dipper we had seen on this stretch of the river. Such an exciting sighting – an absolute delight and further proof of what we had always suspected, the water must be pretty clean.
The top of the bank was covered in scarlet poppies making a lovely splash of colour to admire as we clambered up and down the steep slope to the beach trying with some difficulty to avoid all the meadow and field grasshoppers, the tussocks of hot grass seemed full of them.
The undergrowth beneath the hawthorn thicket along the water’s edge was a wonderful tangle of flowering bramble, red campion, hedge mustard, dog rose, elderflower and hedge woundwort and we spotted a Large Skipper butterfly vivid against the dark bramble leaves, a Marbled White and a couple of Meadow Brown butterflies as well as a Blue Shield Bug and several Nursery Web spider tents in the long grass, one with the grey female crouching on guard outside and the spiderlings in a close huddle ball inside.
Scrambling through the small gap between the hawthorn branches and those trip wires for the unwary, skeins of bramble branches trailing in every direction, we eventually made it to the second, stony beach where we found copious amounts of Otter spraint, both fresh and recent, together with crayfish remains and crayfish pearls. It feels a very secretive place, quiet and for the most part unexplored except for the wildlife, a total haven out of time. A Kingfisher flashed by while we were exploring the beach and from the trees lining the banks there came the cheery twitter of small birds and the fluid notes of a Blackbird, a wonderful counterpoint to the splashing sounds of the river rippling over stones beside us. A perfect spot for messin’ about on the river.
27th June 2019 / Temp: 19 C / Water Level: Low
Icheumon Wasp (sarcitorius) female
Strange kind of weather – clear blue skies, wall to wall brilliant sunshine but a stiff north-easterly wind, surprisingly chill, created havoc with the tossing branches and swaying reeds. The wind may have accounted for the almost complete absence of butterflies – apart from a couple of Meadow Browns we saw none at all. When I look back to the same week last year, the meadows and riverside were full of butterflies feeding on the banks of cow parsley, common hogweed and swathes of red campion, ox-eye daisies, tufted vetch and massed grasses and reeds in flower. All of the plants are there, thriving, making that wonderful display of rioting flowering growth which is the glory of June but the butterflies are strangely absent. However, on the thick clumps of tall stinging nettles edging the water, masses of black, furry writhing Peacock butterfly caterpillars cover every inch of every leaf so – good times should be on the way.
At least there were Banded and Beautiful Demoiselles and a few Common Blue Damselflies after the complete dearth during our last visit, but nowhere near the usual numbers we expect to see at this time of the year. One solitary Mallard was the only waterbird, no Heron, Little Egrets, Canada Geese, Cormorants or Mandarin Ducks and the only other birds were Magpies, Jackdaws, Whitethroats, Wrens, Song Thrush, Robin and Blackbird – no raptors, no tits – a warning peep and the all too brief sight of two Kingfishers flashing past but no sign of the resident Pied Wagtails.
What there were in extraordinary numbers were the bees – Tree Bumblebees, Common Carder bees, Honey bees, Buff-tailed bees, several species of Icheumon wasps, Thick-legged flower beetles, Ladybirds, a Caddisfly and a beautiful Large Yellow Underwing moth swarming over the umbellifers, the newly opened Field roses and the Bramble flowers.
We can only assume that the unseasonally cold, wet weather of the past month or maybe the strong wind, has played havoc with the summer butterflies and dragonflies. Although we haven’t seen the floods experienced by large swathes of the north of England, we have have had weeks of torrential rain and thunder storms which the smaller, more delicate species have simply may have been unable to withstand.
No signs of fresh Otter activity on three of our four sites and only two recent spraint and pad marks and no fresh spraint at the other when again, in the same month last year there were copious amounts of fresh spraint everywhere. Strange times – we blame Brexit!
14th June 2019 / Temp: 18 C / Water Level: High
Overcast with sunny intervals, the stiff breeze tossing the branches of the willows, umbellifers and grasses, forcing the bees and insects to cling firmly and driving away the birds and butterflies (apart from one Common Blue) but thankfully dry after weeks of torrential rain. A few brave damselflies risked the wind, but only half a dozen Beautiful Demoiselles and four Common Blues and no Banded Demoiselles at all. Given that there had been uncountable numbers over the river and beach only a few weeks ago, it was astonishing that they had all simply disappeared. Hoping to see flying insects, we were constantly distracted by white willow seeds which the wind played with, drawing the eye to a small scrap of fluff shooting past, which proved disappointingly to be yet another willow seed.
one of the flower bordered small streams feeding the river
Ladybirds and fat Bumble bees everywhere, including White-tailed bees, new sightings for us, a Dark-edged Beefly which we thought very late, but few honey bees. On Colliers Way where we walked recently it was the opposite, every other bee being a honey bee. A scattering of beetles, a Nettle weevil, a Common Red Soldier beetle (which we as children always called blood suckers) lots of Thick-legged Flower beetles and a small black shiny beetle which we think may well be an Imported Willow-leaf beetle – a rather self-important name for such an insignificant insect! We sat on the bank overlooking the beach while the wind thrashed the plants, whipped the water along the river played around our heads and filled our lungs with fresh chilled air. A tiny Digger wasp landed first on a nearby leaf and then moved to my husband’s trouser leg where he settled comfortably, out of the wind but basking in the sudden burst of sunshine. He was still there when we moved off and stayed until, as he seemed reluctant to leave us, I lifted and flicked him with a pen into the flower filled meadow edge.
The river was in full spate, fast and choppy and mud coloured, in a mad dash to get somewhere, but too deep and muddy to attract Kingfishers and we didn’t see a single one all afternoon. In fact there was an almost complete dearth of any birds at all, the odd Blackbird, Wood Pigeon and Whitethroat but no water birds, not even a Mallard, which must be a first. In the midst of all this winged desert, we were really pleased to see a good quantity of fresh Otter spraint on the beach, which since the cattle have yet to be let loose onto the meadow, is now almost completely covered with a thick forest of shoulder high umbellifers, reeds, red campion, stinging nettles and hedge mustard, surrounding the very old gnarled willow, so at least the Otters haven’t disappeared!
On the way back we spotted a couple of white mushrooms, a surprising sight for mid-June, which we think may well have been a St George’s mushroom given the locality but we weren’t entirely sure. Almost all of the flowering plants matched the list of a week ago, apart from the newly opening Water Figwort among the tangle along the stream, Snowberry, Prickly sow-thistle and Creeping thistle; the Spear thistle although well-grown showed no signs of coming into flower.
1st June 2019 / Temp: 24C / Water Level: Very Low
A very hot day but by the time we reached the river late afternoon, the sky had become hazy and the wind fresher so it was cool but the river meadows were still bathed in soft sunlight. The birds were mostly silent, very little action on the river (although we were lucky enough to see the Kingfisher flashing upriver and whizzing back. We spotted recent Otter spraint on the stoney beach where the umbellifers were in full flower so the air next to the water was filled with damselflies, beetles, bees and flies. We caught sight of a black legged Soldier beetle (probably Cantharis fusca) feeding on a Hogweed flowerhead who seemed completely oblivious to the Ashy Mining bee sharing the same flower. Common Hogweed flowers are always a tremendous hunting ground for insects, they always seem to have some beetle or fly feeding on them – no wonder they are rated in the top 10 nectar producing plants in the UK.
Lots of ladybirds around including this pair of 7-spot sharing a dock plant with a yellow and black 14-spot which should have been better named, the markings look like exuberant paint splashes by abstract expressionists!
Most of the summer damselflies had arrived, both uncountable numbers of Banded and and good few Beautiful Demoiselles, Common Blue, Blue Tailed and White Legged. Every year the immature damselflies of both the Common Blue and the White Legged damselflies catch me out as I get over-excited thinking I have identified another species, only to find on my bible, The British Dragonfly Society species and identification website British Dragonfly Society that the small buff coloured damselflies and the small pale damselflies with black markings are in fact immature females and even males of the Common Blue or White Legged as the rather fuzzy out of focus photographs here show.
We spotted two Common Cockchafers (Maybug), lots of ungainly Crane flies floundering around in the long grass, a fat Carder bee on the hunt and several Rose chafers arriving in time for the Dog roses which were flowering in profusion in spectacular cascades of pale pink blooms tangled among branches and winding through the hedges. The Ox-eye daisies have also made their appearance, lining the meadow, and as we walked the strong scent of the newly emerging elderflowers filled the air.
Although there were only a couple of butterflies about, an Orange Tip and a Green Veined White, (it is the tail-end for many spring-flying broods, and too early for late summer butterflies) in every other way it truly looked and felt like the Gregorian calendar tell us it is, the first day of summer!
25th May 2019 / Water Level: LowA juvenile Signal Crayfish – less than 3cm long
What can be more enjoyable for energetic small boys, their indulgent Dad, their Aunt, photographer extraordinaire who is always ready with a steadying arm, their loving Grandpa and Grandma, than messin’ about in the river!
We all clambered down the steep bank clutching dipping nets, trays, buckets, linen magnifiers, sunhats, notebooks, cameras, wellington boots, not to mention all the paraphernelia which always seems to accompany outings with children, to the boulder strewn river bed, where fortunately the water was very low, to kick-sample the river quality.
At least that was the idea, but of course it quickly became an adventurous scramble over hazardous rocks and sudden deep pools, with shrieks of delight or fear echoing back from trees, tall grasses and umbellifers and the walled sides of the bridge as a child found something exciting. Maybe crayfish remains in the shallows, or spotting a fish swimming over their boots or finding Otter spraint on a stone or fat river snails clinging to the river weed, or perhaps a broken pearlized shell of a river mussel – gleaming in the water – all the exciting treasures usually found on a river bed.
Exciting finds included a White Ramshorn snail shell, seeing small black leeches attached to a stone, waving in the water, rather gruesome but interesting nevertheless but what we found in the greatest profusion were an extraordinary number of mayfly nymphs (including the Yellow May in our tray) and nymph exoskeletons, drifting on the current, abandoned in the river when the Mayflies moult – they are everywhere.
Yellow May (Heptagenia sulphurea) dun nymph – copyright Rebecca Muirhead
A huge yell, lots of splashings, excited chatter, roars of triumph and the result? The boys have caught a good sized Signal crayfish which they carry carefully but with great triumph over to the tray filled with river water, weeds and a scattering of gravel where they gently ease him out and stare with awe-struck delight. The seven year old immediately spots a problem so Dad moves the tray into the shade so he won’t get too hot while they crouch down and examine every inch of their catch while telling us of fishing for crayfish in the Mells River, a feeder stream upriver, by dangling raw bacon tied to thin rope on the end of wooden sticks – a fail-safe method where they catch dozens.
We later found a tiny crayfish, not even 3 cm in length, and later still an even smaller one. In fact it soon seemed that crayfish and mayflies made almost the entire contents of the river! However, as the eggs (between 200-400) hatch in May and the juveniles cling to their mothers for 8 or 9 days or so, and then spend 3 or 4 days exploring and returning to mum before becoming independent, it is the time of year we should see so many crayfish. Even if a lot get eaten with each female crayfish producing so many eggs, no wonder this particular stretch of river is full of them.
After a very happy afternoon exploring the river, a tired party emptied buckets and trays gently into the river, collected their belongings and headed home where the seven year old wrote an account of the afternoon with special mention to crayfish and his “tasty snack” of macaroon biscuits for tea.
22nd May 2019 / Temp: 18 C / Water Level: Low
Our second Otter survey day revealed four fresh and two recent piles of Otter spraint on a muddy stretch of beach on one area and one fresh spraint, one recent, a pad mark and two couches together with copious amounts of crayfish remains at another area of the first of our sites, all of which raised our spirits considerably!
No signs at the next site but when walking across the water meadow we almost fell over a Guinea Fowl standing firm allowing all of her tiny chicks to scuttle off and disappear in the long grass while three or four Swallows chased and caught insects above us. Yellow rock roses nestled at the feet of the meadow ant hills and several beetles, including the red cardinal, busied themselves amongst the plants. We also caught sight of a small insignificant looking damselfly which we later identified as the very common Blue-tailed damselfly which however common was new to us.
What is it with cows and heiffers? We walked quietly, slowly, keeping to the edge of the field, but of course they wanted to come up and say hello – polite of course but not totally welcome as black and white Friesian cows are all rather large, lumbering along with their milk swollen udders swinging, so what with navigating around the cows and the young heiffers and avoiding their fresh dung-fly infested cow pats liberally scattered across the field, our passage was slow and watchful. At least 8 Mandarin Ducks and 6 Mallard with young took exception to our arrival at the beach and of course three cows chose that moment to push in front of us to get to the river to drink so the inspection was hurried and brief – time to clock three recent and some old spraint before we made our way to the next site, shooing more and more cows and heiffers before us as we did so.
A flock of ten batchelor Mandarin ducks and four Mallard flew off as we arrived at the last site. The beach was filled with cattle and when they moved off, they had so churned and splattered the soft mud that any spraint would have been obliterated. We were then obliged to scramble through the hedge, ripping our hands and arms on the brambles and hawthorns, dripping blood spatters over our notebook as we peered at the pebbles and stones searching for spraint while the cows stood knee deep in the river beside us watching our every move while excreting and urinating copious amounts of effluent into the river. Impossible not to feel sorry for any small creature in the river bed beneath or the Kingfisher flashing by with a warning peep. However, our endeavours were rewarded by lots of Otter spraint, four fresh and five recent so the cattle have not driven off the Otters from their favourite beach.
21st May 2019 / Temp: 18-20 C / Water Level: Low
(Sub-imago?) Green Drake (ephemera danica) Mayfly
A green drake mayfly conveniently landed on my jacket which made it easier to take a snap. The most common mayfly on unpolluted rivers and streams and certainly the one we see most often. There were uncountable numbers rising from the river as we checked the banks and stones for otter spraint and we only saw 2 or 3 drake mackerels yo yo dancing above the bank, possibly too early in the day to see the swarms of previous years.
We found fresh and recent otter spraint at two of day’s set of four sites, nine on the large stones exposed by the low water level under the bridge where we shared the river shallows with male and female beautiful demoiselle damselflies, female orange tips, peacocks and speckled wood butterflies fluttering amongst the flowers and grasses while listening to the beautiful tunes of the Blackbird and Song Thrush. None on the next site but this stretch of the river bank is thick with wild flowers at this time of the year, stitchwort, shepherds purse, crosswort, dove’s foot cranesbill, scentless mayweed, ground ivy, hope trefoil, herb robert, red campion, buttercups, bush vetch, birds eye speedwell as well as all the umbelifers. The Norway maple and the Hawthorn trees are in full blossom, the latter filling the air with its not altogether pleasant scent.
(Male imago?) Drake Mackerel (ephemera vulgata) Mayfly
A pair of Mallard and their young scooted off when we reached the beach, which was a wonderful tangle of plants and flowers, umbelifers and butterburr, common and white comfrey, wintercress and red campion, water forget-me-not and brooklime keeping their feet wet at the waters edge and the wonderfully longed for arrival of the common blue and the banded demoiselles in number, both male and female, joining the earlier beautiful demoiselles above the water, ovipositing in the water crowfoot, or chasing each other among the plants. A vivid red cockchafer joined the usual ungainly crane flies and the whole time mayfly after mayfly lifted from the water, the usual green drakes but also much smaller, pale winged mayflies, possibly fisherman’s curse (caenis horaria) but not ones we have been able to definitely identify.
We chatted to a fly fisherman, newly arrived and asking whether we had spotted any brown trout; we hadn’t so remarking that he was probably too early, he was happy to while away some time discussing the river (which he said was surprisingly clean so relatively close downstream to a town) and the quiet enjoyment of an afternoon’s fishing while the cares and stresses of every day life fell away. We exchanged news of birds and mayflies spotted, he had seen a pair of Mandarin ducks with 6 young, and a Wren feeding on mayflies, something we had never witnessed although we have seen Heron catching and feeding on dragonflies, before he decided to walk farther downstream before trying his luck once again.
The yaffle of a Green Woodpecker, the cheerful song of Whitethroats and Chaffinches, the mew of a circling Buzzard being mobbed by three crows and the screech of a Magpie as well as calling jackdaws and rooks accompanied our saunter back. The harvesters had been out haymaking, leaving long piles of cut grass snaking ac